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English citations of Molotov cocktail and Molotov cocktails
- 1944 October 1st, TM‒E 30‒480 Handbook on Japanese Military Forces (U.S. War Department Technical Manual), chapter IX: “Weapons”, § ii: ‘Infantry weapons’, pages 212–213:
- j. Molotov cocktail incendiary grenade. (1) General description. This is a Japanese version of the “Molotov cocktail”. It consists of a standard bottle (fig. 202) filled with a mixture of oil and gasoline. (The bottle illustrated in figure 202 is a Japanese beer bottle.) The fuze is an “all-ways” type that will ignite when the grenade is thrown no matter in what position the bottle lands, for the impact drives the firing pin down into the detonator which ignites the contents of the bottle.
- ante 1969, John Kennedy Toole, A Confederacy of Dunces, page 134:
- I am not above tossing a Molotov cocktail or two, either.
- 1976, Arthur Dock Fon Toy, Phosphorus Chemistry in Everyday Living, American Chemical Society, ISBN 0841202931 (10), ISBN 9780841202931 (13), page 10:
- Self-igniting phosphorus when combined with benzene is called a Molotov cocktail. During World War II, right after the evacuation from Dunkirk, millions of Molotov cocktails were made by the British with beer and milk bottles for the defense of England.
- 2006, Jared Ledgard, The Preparatory Manual of Black Powder and Pyrotechnics, § 05‒07‒023, page 356:
- Basic Molotov cocktail design utilizing a non-glass bottle. The bottle should be made of gasoline resistant plastic, tin, aluminum, or any other desired metal. The weight of the bursting charge should only be 10% of the total weight of the flammable composition.
- 2008, Spencer C. Tucker, “Molotov cocktail” in The Encyclopedia of the Arab–Israeli Conflict I (A–H), eds. Spencer C. Tucker and Priscilla Mary Roberts, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 9781851098415 (hard copy), ISBN 9781851098422 (ebook), page 694/2:
- The Molotov cocktail is an improvised gasoline bomb. The gasoline, sometimes with additives such as motor oil to make it stick to its target, is placed in a glass bottle, which is then stopped with a cork or other air-tight sealer. A wick or cloth rag is fixed securely to the neck of the bottle, soaked in gas, and lit before the bottle is thrown. The glass shatters on impact, and the gas immediately ignites. In war, the Molotov cocktail has been used against personnel and vehicles. // The Molotov cocktail was first used during the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939). It was widely used by the Finns against Soviet forces during the Finnish–Soviet War (1939–1940) and the so-called Continuation War between the same two states (1941–1944). The Soviets also employed it against German vehicles on the eastern front during World War II. The weapon is named for Vyacheslav Molotov, Soviet foreign minister from 1939 to 1949. The Finns gave it that name during the Finnish–Soviet War after Molotov claimed in a radio broadcast that the Soviets were not dropping bombs but rather delivering food to the starving Finns. The British also produced a hand grenade during World War II, known as a Sticky Bomb, that was in essence a Molotov cocktail. //…// The Molotov cocktails’s regular contemporary military counterpart is napalm.
- 2009, David L. Gold (author), Félix Rodríguez González and Antonio Lillo Buades (editors), Studies in Etymology and Etiology, University of Alicante, ISBN 9788479085179, contents, page 8, chapter 10 title (pages 193–235):
- Etymology and Etiology in the Study of Eponymous Lexemes: The Case of English Molotov cocktail and Finnish Molotovin koktaili
- 2011, Glen E. Rodgers, Descriptive Inorganic, Coordination, & Solid-State Chemistry (third edition), ISBN 0840068468 (10), ISBN 9780840068460 (13), part III, § 16.4, page 482:
- Phosphorus has been used for a variety of incendiaries. One of the most famous is the Molotov cocktail, a combination of phosphorus and gasoline in a bottle. This concoction was first used by the British government to prepare millions of its citizens in the event England was invaded by ground troops in World War II. The cocktails were stored in beer or milk bottles and quite often submerged in a nearby stream. When the bottle broke upon impact, the phosphorus ignited the gasoline to produce an effective and cheap explosive.