English citations of urban Indian
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- 1962: The Urban Indian Canadian: a Handlist of Voluntary Organizations Working with People of Indian Background in Canada's Towns and Cities, Toronto: the Indian-Eskimo Association of Canada.
- The Urban Indian Canadian [title]
- 1968: Arthur K. Davis, “Urban Indians in Western Canada: Implications of Social Theory and Social Policy,” in Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, ser 4, v 6, p 217, the Royal Society of Canada.
- Urban Indians in Western Canada: Implications of Social Theory and Social Policy [article title]
- 1972: Royal Commission on Taxation, United States Congress. Senate. Committee on Appropriations, Canada, Hearings: Indices, v 4 (1973), p 3773, Angus, Stonehouse.
- I consider myself an urban Indian. I come before the committee as an Indian citizen concerned about urban Indian problems.
- 1974: James Frideres, Canada's Indians: Contemporary Conflicts, Prentice-Hall of Canada. →ISBN.
- 87: Urban Indians [chapter title]
- 97: [note] While the urban Indian may have a higher “per capita” income per year than his reserve counterpart, other factors must be considered for a comparison.
- 1975: W.T. Stanbury, “Urban Indians in the Labour Market”, in Larry F. Moore, Manpower Planning for Canadians: An Anthology, p 194, Institute of Industrial Relations, University of British Columbia.
- 169: Urban Indians, faced with seemingly insurmountable obstacles in their search for satisfactory employment, become “discouraged workers” thereby hampering severely their labour market contributions.
- 194: . . . section IV describes the methods of finding jobs used by urban Indians and by the entire labour force.
- 1975: W.T. Stanbury, Jay H. Siegel, Success and Failure: Indians in Urban Society, University of British Columbia Press. →ISBN.
- Unpublished data derived from the 1971 Census indicate that urban Indian families are significantly smaller than rural (reserve) families in British Columbia.
- 1978: Jean Leonard Elliott, Two Nations, Many Cultures: Ethnic Groups in Canada, 2nd edition, Prentice-Hall of Canada.
- Urban Indians in British Columbia [chapter title]
- 1980, Larry Krotz, Urban Indians, the Strangers in Canada's Cities, Edmonton: Hurtig, p 156:
- The urban Indian is identified not by his reserve affiliation or by his treaty status or by his socio-economic position. He or she is identified by ethnicity and heritage and by the fact of having made a conscious choice to maintain and reinforce that ethnicity and heritage, [. . .]
- 1980: Ontario Indian, v 3, Union of Ontario Indians
- 23: “Reserve Indians” vs. “Urban Indians”: [article title]
- 1980: Russel Lawrence Barsh, James Youngblood Henderson, The road: Indian tribes and political liberty, University of California Press. →ISBN.
- 245: Since after a few generations of interspersal with the non-Indian population many “urban” Indians look less “Indian,” race presents itself as a convenient, if not entirely appropriate discriminator.
- 1984: David L. Anderson, Raymond Breton, Gail Grant, The Dynamics of Government Programs for Urban Indians in the Prairie Provinces, Institute for Research on Public Policy. →ISBN.
- [p xxx] Urban Indians are the losers because they are caught in the middle of an unending jurisdictional dispute between two levels of government.
- [p 103] In the Winnipeg School Division, however, where the majority of the province's urban Indian students attend school, this program is not operative either because the students are not formally identified as status Indians, or becuse they have been residents for more than one year.
- 1985: James H. Marsh, The Canadian Encyclopedia, v 2, Hurtig.
- 1225: . . . the cultural background of individuals according to the traditional evolutionary level of their native social heritage; historical elements such as the length and intensity of white contact; ecological elements such as the urban proximity of their communities; the local quality of white receptivity such as the extent of anti-Indian reaction; and the maturity of urban Indian ethnic institutions in the city they move to.
- 1988: Erich Kasten, “Bridging the Gap: Reserve and Off-Reserve Indian Interaction on the Northwest Coast”, in Sociologus, v 37, pp 115–136, Duncker & Humblot.
- 115: Native Indian people in Canada have been legally divided by the Indian Act (Statutes of Canada) into those who live on Indian reserves and the increasing number living in or migrating into urban areas, the so-called Urban Indians.
- 115: More recently, however, ongoing processes of community development on both sides have led to a more pronounced interaction between Urban Indian communities and the local bands on the reserve.
- 116: Not infrequently, the efforts of Urban Indian organizations to improve the conditions for their community members are jealously monitored by reserve Indian organizations and denied support, as the latter fear that benefits accordi to the Indian Act could be diverted or extended to off-reserve Indian people.
- 118: These were soon associated with the rapidly growing Urban Indian community.
- 1993: James Frideres, Lilianne E. Krosenbrink-Gelissen, Native Peoples in Canada: Contemporary Conflicts, 4th edition, Prentice-Hall Canada.
- 263: Urban Indian Profile [chapter title]
- 1993: Boyce Richardson, People of Terra Nullius: Betrayal and Rebirth in Aboriginal Canada, Douglas & McIntyre. →ISBN.
- 17: . . . of Nova Scotia, the Ojibway and Algonquins of Ontario and Quebec, the Crees of Manitoba, the Métis of the west, the Carriers and Gitksan people of northern British Columbia, and the urban Indians of Winnipeg and Regina.
- 1995: Pauline Comeau, Aldo Santin, The First Canadians: A Profile of Canada's Native People today, 2nd revised edition. James Lorimer & Company.
- 52: Urban Indians [chapter title]
- 54: “When you look at the reality, we are far from assimilated,” says Lyle Longclaws, a Winnipeg urban Indian leader. "We are very much isolated from the rest of Winnipeg society.
- 60: After Ottawa passed the bill, many Indians were expected to apply to return to the already cash-strapped reserves; the bill was also predicted to cause an increase in the number of urban Indians.
- 60: In Manitoba, for example, the urban Indian population jumped 330 per cent (by conservative estimates) between 1966 and 1986.
- 62–63: As chief of the Saskatchewan Federation of Indians between 1986 and 1994, he warned those provincial leaders who expressed some willingness to step into the urban Indian debate: “The premiers feel good sitting around the table with the big boys, but they'd better think twice about what responsibility for Indian people means.”
- 1997: Caillou, G.D., “Urban Indians: Reflections on Participation of First Nation Individuals in the Institutions of the Larger Society” in J. Rick Ponting, First Nations In Canada: Perspectives on Opportunity, Empowerment, and Self-Determination, McGraw-Hill Ryerson.
- 222: Urban Indians: Reflections on Participation of First Nation Individuals in the Institutions of the Larger Society [chapter title]
- 1999, Klaus Frantz, Indian Reservations in the United States: Territory, Sovereignty, and Socioeconomic Change, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, p 93:
- Because of the dearth of data in the 16th U.S. Census (1940) the percentage of American Indians living in cities could be calculated only for these selected states. According to the census, an urban Indian is one who lives in a settlement with more than 2,500 inhabitants. Settlements on reservations are also included in this classification. [. . .]
- Fig. 4.8: The percentage of American Indians living in urban areas in selected states, 1940 and 1980.
- 2000: Lynne Davis, Marlene Brant Castellano, Louise Lahache, Aboriginal Education: Fulfilling the Promise UBC Press. →ISBN.
- 33: The Congress of Aboriginal Peoples (CAP; formerly the Native Council of Canada), the largest organization of so-called non-status and urban Indians in Canada, claims to speak for some 750,000 people.
- 2008: Menno Boldt, Surviving as Indians: The Challenge of Self-government, University of Toronto Press. →ISBN.
- xiv: My motivation for writing this book originates from an ongoing internal discussion that has been nurtured by what I have seen of conditions on Indian reserves and in urban Indian ghettos; by statistics on the Indian condition; by what I have heard from frustrated, angry, and despairing victims of the present system; by what has been revealed to me in many interviews and discussions with Indian leaders and others involved in the conduct of Indian affairs; and by what I have read.
- 190: Urban Indians [section title]
- 190: Strong cultural links between reserve and urban Indians are important for another reason.
- 244: To date, there has been little advocacy by band/tribal leaders to reduce reserve–urban Indian benefit differentials.
- 244: Occasionally they express concern over high levels of urban Indian unemployment, inadequate housing, prejudice, discrimination, and so on, but they rarely use their office or influnce in a concerted undertaking to support, protect, or enhance the well-being of urban Indians.
- 267: In a context of formal structural linkages between reserve and urban Indian communities, middle-class development would impel the ruling-élite class on reserves to become more open and accountable to their constituents.
- 313: The Commission may examine legislative jurisdiction concerning the Metis and Non-Status Indians, and investigate the economic base of, and the provision of government services to these people and to off-reserve and urban Indians.
- 2008, Jeffrey P. Shepherd, “At the Crossroads of Hualapai History, Memory, and American Colonization: Contesting Space and Place”, in American Indian Quarterly, v 32, n 1, University of Nebraska Press, p 34:
- The demographers and social scientists of the 1960s who triumphantly “discovered” a new species called the “urban Indian” misunderstood the cultural and economic function of urbanization for many Indians when they argued that Indians lived in cities.
Asian urban Indians
- 2005, Takashi Inoguchi, Values and life styles in urban Asia, page 163:
- Survey helps us understand the life patterns of the urban Indian middle class.
- 2006, Rajinder Kumar Dudrah, Bollywood: sociology goes to the movies, page 65:
- kind of Bollywood star who has risen to prominence in tandem with the growth in production of contemporary urban Indian and diaspora-themed films.
- 2006, Kernial Singh Sandhu; A. Mani, Indian communities in Southeast Asia, page 508:
- Both these groups of urban Indian workers also face stiff competition from the members of the other two ethnic groups.