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Traditional reading of the Biblical Hebrew Tetragrammaton יהוה, based on the qeri perpetuum found in the Masoretic text (ca. 7th to 10th century). Attested in print from at least 1514, but used in the 15th century (by Nicholas of Cusa, d. 1464.[1]). The transcription has earlier (medieval, and even ancient) origins; found as Johouah (and variants) in Raymond Martin (1278). The Greek equivalent ΙΕΗΩΟΥΑ is found even in Late Antiquity, in the Pistis Sophia (perhaps a 2nd century text, extant in 5th or 6th century manuscripts).

Proper noun[edit]


  1. Jehovah
    • 1518 Non enim hę quatuor literę יהוה si, ut punctatę sunt, legantur: Ioua reddunt: sed (ut ipse optime nosti) Iehoua efficiunt. (P. Galatinus De Arcanis Catholicae Veritatis, II. f. 48, cited after OED)


George F. Moore, Notes on the Name יהוה, The American Journal of Theology, Vol. 12, No. 1 (Jan., 1908) pp. 34-52.