Module:IPA/data

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Text-x-generic with pencil.svg This module needs documentation.
Please document this module by describing its purpose and usage on the documentation page.

See also: Module:IPA/testcases

nonstandard[edit]

m.nonstandard

symbols[edit]

m.symbols

This table consists of keys that are valid IPA symbols (which may be a single character or a set of characters), each of which should have a table as value with the optional fields title, link, and XSAMPA.

title
link
XSAMPA

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-SAMPA

Substitutions Text in the table is neutered for HTML text or attributes with the following

HTML Latin entity " used for " HTML Latin entity ' used for ' Escaped backslash \\ used for \ HTML Latin entity < used for < HTML Latin entity > used for > HTML Latin entity & used for &

Not represented in the table

"*" undefined escape character, SAMPA's "conjunctor" "/" indeterminacy in French vowels "<" begin nonsegmental notation (e.g., SAMPROSA) ">" end nonsegmental notation "_<" implosive (IPA uses separate symbols for implosives)

"�" Replacement Character is used for unrepresentable characters


local m = {}

-- Non-standard or obsolete IPA symbols.
m.nonstandard = {
    "ɑ̢", "d̂", "t̂", "n̂", "l̂", "k̫", "ɔ̗", "ɔ̖", -- these symbols consist of more than one character, so we can't put them in the line below
    "[ʦʣʧʤʨʥ?ƍσƺƪƻƾƞᶀᶁᶂᶃᶄᶅᶆᶈᶇᶉᶊᶋƫᶌᶍᶎʓʆλƛłščžǰǧǯẋᵻᵿⱻʚɷωıȹȸ∅ØƥƭƈƙʠʇʗʖʞɩɼȣяɿʅʮʯᴀᴀᴇGRŒQȡȶȵȴKPT]",
}

-- Valid IPA symbols.
-- Currently almost all values of "title" and "link" keys are just the comments that were used in [[Module:IPA]], the "link" fields should be checked (those that start with an uppercase letter are checked)
m.symbols = {}

m.symbols[1] = {
    -- PULMONIC CONSONANTS

    -- nasal
    ["m"] = {title = "bilabial nasal", link = "w:Bilabial nasal", XSAMPA = "m"},
    ["ɱ"] = {title = "labiodental nasal", link = "w:Labiodental nasal", XSAMPA = "F"},
    ["n"] = {title = "alveolar nasal", link = "w:Alveolar nasal", XSAMPA = "n"},
    ["ɳ"] = {title = "retroflex nasal", link = "w:Retroflex nasal", XSAMPA = "n`"},
    ["ɲ"] = {title = "palatal nasal", link = "w:Palatal nasal", XSAMPA = "J"},
    ["ŋ"] = {title = "velar nasal", link = "w:Velar nasal", XSAMPA = "N"},
    ["ɴ"] = {title = "uvular nasal", link = "w:Uvular nasal", XSAMPA = "N\\"},

   -- plosive
    ["p"] = {title = "voiceless bilabial plosive", link = "w:Voiceless bilabial stop", XSAMPA = "p"},
    ["b"] = {title = "voiced bilabial plosive", link = "w:Voiced bilabial stop", XSAMPA = "b"},
    ["t"] = {title = "voiceless alveolar plosive", link = "w:Voiceless alveolar stop", XSAMPA = "t"},
    ["d"] = {title = "voiced alveolar plosive", link = "w:Voiced alveolar stop", XSAMPA = "d"},
    ["ʈ"] = {title = "voiceless retroflex plosive", link = "w:Voiceless retroflex stop", XSAMPA = "t`"},
    ["ɖ"] = {title = "voiced retroflex plosive", link = "w:Voiced retroflex stop", XSAMPA = "d`"},
    ["c"] = {title = "voiceless palatal plosive", link = "w:Voiceless palatal stop", XSAMPA = "c"},
    ["ɟ"] = {title = "voiced palatal plosive", link = "w:Voiced palatal stop", XSAMPA = "J\\"},
    ["k"] = {title = "voiceless velar plosive", link = "w:Voiceless velar stop", XSAMPA = "k"},
    ["ɡ"] = {title = "voiced velar plosive", link = "w:Voiced velar stop", XSAMPA = "g"},
    ["q"] = {title = "voiceless uvular plosive", link = "w:Voiceless uvular stop", XSAMPA = "q"},
    ["ɢ"] = {title = "voiced uvular plosive", link = "w:Voiced uvular stop", XSAMPA = "G\\"},
    ["ʡ"] = {title = "epiglottal plosive", link = "w:Epiglottal stop", XSAMPA = ">\\"},
    ["ʔ"] = {title = "glottal stop", link = "w:Glottal stop", XSAMPA = "?"},

    -- fricative
    ["ɸ"] = {title = "voiceless bilabial fricative", link = "w:Voiceless bilabial fricative", XSAMPA = "p\\"},
    ["β"] = {title = "voiced bilabial fricative", link = "w:Voiced bilabial fricative", XSAMPA = "B"},
    ["f"] = {title = "voiceless labiodental fricative", link = "w:Voiceless labiodental fricative", XSAMPA = "f"},
    ["v"] = {title = "voiced labiodental fricative", link = "w:Voiced labiodental fricative", XSAMPA = "v"},
    ["θ"] = {title = "voiceless dental fricative", link = "w:Voiceless dental fricative", XSAMPA = "T"},
    ["ð"] = {title = "voiced dental fricative", link = "w:Voiced dental fricative", XSAMPA = "D"},
    ["s"] = {title = "voiceless alveolar fricative", link = "w:Voiceless alveolar fricative", XSAMPA = "s"},
    ["z"] = {title = "voiced alveolar fricative", link = "w:Voiced alveolar fricative", XSAMPA = "z"},
    ["ʃ"] = {title = "voiceless postalveolar fricative", link = "w:Voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant", XSAMPA = "S"},
    ["ʒ"] = {title = "voiced postalveolar fricative", link = "w:Voiced palato-alveolar sibilant", XSAMPA = "Z"},
    ["ʂ"] = {title = "voiceless retroflex fricative", link = "w:Voiceless retroflex sibilant", XSAMPA = "s`"},
    ["ʐ"] = {title = "voiced retroflex fricative", link = "w:Voiced retroflex sibilant", XSAMPA = "z`"},
    ["ɕ"] = {title = "voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative", link = "w:Voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant", XSAMPA = "s\\"},
    ["ʑ"] = {title = "voiced alveolo-palatal fricative", link = "w:Voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant", XSAMPA = "z\\"},
    ["ç"] = {title = "voiceless palatal fricative", link = "w:Voiceless palatal fricative", XSAMPA = "C"},
    ["ʝ"] = {title = "voiced palatal fricative", link = "w:Voiced palatal fricative", XSAMPA = "j\\"},
    ["x"] = {title = "voiceless velar fricative", link = "w:Voiceless velar fricative", XSAMPA = "x"},
    ["ɣ"] = {title = "voiced velar fricative", link = "w:Voiced velar fricative", XSAMPA = "G"},
    ["χ"] = {title = "voiceless uvular fricative", link = "w:Voiceless uvular fricative", XSAMPA = "X"},
    ["ʁ"] = {title = "voiced uvular fricative", link = "w:Voiced uvular fricative", XSAMPA = "R"},
    ["ħ"] = {title = "voiceless pharyngeal fricative", link = "w:Voiceless pharyngeal fricative", XSAMPA = "X\\"},
    ["ʕ"] = {title = "voiced pharyngeal fricative", link = "w:Voiced pharyngeal fricative", XSAMPA = "?\\"},
    ["ʜ"] = {title = "voiceless epiglottal fricative", link = "w:Voiceless epiglottal fricative", XSAMPA = "H\\"},
    ["ʢ"] = {title = "voiced epiglottal fricative", link = "w:Voiced epiglottal fricative", XSAMPA = "<\\"},
    ["h"] = {title = "voiceless glottal fricative", link = "w:Voiceless glottal fricative", XSAMPA = "h"},
    ["ɦ"] = {title = "voiced glottal fricative", link = "w:Voiced glottal fricative", XSAMPA = "h\\"},

    -- approximant
    ["ʋ"] = {title = "labiodental approximant", link = "w:Labiodental approximant", XSAMPA = "v\\"}, -- or "P"
    ["ɹ"] = {title = "alveolar approximant", link = "w:Alveolar approximant", XSAMPA = "r\\"},
    ["ɻ"] = {title = "retroflex approximant", link = "w:Retroflex approximant", XSAMPA = "r\\`"},
    ["j"] = {title = "palatal approximant", link = "w:Palatal approximant", XSAMPA = "j"},
    ["ɰ"] = {title = "velar approximant", link = "w:Velar approximant", XSAMPA = "M\\"},

    -- tap, flap
    ["ⱱ"] = {title = "labiodental tap", link = "w:Labiodental flap", XSAMPA = "b\\"}, -- NOT IN X-SAMPA, source http://www.kneequickie.com/kq/Z-SAMPA
    ["ɾ"] = {title = "alveolar flap", link = "w:Alveolar flap", XSAMPA = "4"},
    ["ɽ"] = {title = "retroflex flap", link = "w:Retroflex flap", XSAMPA = "r`"},

    -- trill
    ["ʙ"] = {title = "bilabial trill", link = "w:Bilabial trill", XSAMPA = "B\\"},
    ["r"] = {title = "alveolar trill", link = "w:Alveolar trill", XSAMPA = "r"},
    ["ʀ"] = {title = "uvular trill", link = "w:Uvular trill", XSAMPA = "R\\"},
    ["ᴙ"] = {title = "epiglottal trill", link = "w:Epiglottal trill", XSAMPA = "%\\"}, -- NOT IN X-SAMPA, source http://www.kneequickie.com/kq/Z-SAMPA

    -- lateral fricative
    ["ɬ"] = {title = "voiceless alveolar lateral fricative", link = "w:Voiceless alveolar lateral fricative", XSAMPA = "K"},
    ["ɮ"] = {title = "voiced alveolar lateral fricative", link = "w:Voiced alveolar lateral fricative", XSAMPA = "K\\"},
    --["ɬ̢"] = {title = "voiceless retroflex lateral fricative", link = "w:voiceless retroflex lateral fricative"}, --  no precomposed Unicode character --TOMOVE
    --["ʎ̝̊"] = {title = "voiceless palatal lateral fricative", link = "w:voiceless palatal lateral fricative"}, -- no precomposed Unicode character --TOMOVE:3
    --["ʟ̝̊"] = {title = "voiceless velar lateral fricative", link = "w:voiceless velar lateral fricative"}, -- no precomposed Unicode character --TOMOVE:3
    --["ʟ̝"] = {title = "voiced velar lateral fricative", link = "w:voiced velar lateral fricative"}, -- no precomposed Unicode character --TOMOVE

    -- lateral approximant
    ["l"] = {title = "alveolar lateral approximant", link = "w:Alveolar lateral approximant", XSAMPA = "l"},
    ["ɭ"] = {title = "retroflex lateral approximant", link = "w:Retroflex lateral approximant", XSAMPA = "l`"},
    ["ʎ"] = {title = "palatal lateral approximant", link = "w:Palatal lateral approximant", XSAMPA = "L"},
    ["ʟ"] = {title = "velar lateral approximant", link = "w:Velar lateral approximant", XSAMPA = "L\\"},

    -- lateral flap
    ["ɺ"] = {title = "alveolar lateral flap", link = "w:Alveolar lateral flap", XSAMPA = "l\\"},
    --["ɭ̆"] = {title = "retroflex lateral flap", link = "w:retroflex lateral flap"}, -- no precomposed Unicode character --TOMOVE
    --["ɺ˞"] = {title = "retroflex lateral flap", link = "w:retroflex lateral flap"}, -- no precomposed Unicode character --TOMOVE

    -- NON-PULMONIC CONSONANTS

    -- clicks
    ["ʘ"] = {title = "bilabial click", link = "w:Bilabial clicks", XSAMPA = "O\\"},
    ["ǀ"] = {title = "dental click", link = "w:Dental clicks", XSAMPA = "|\\"},
    ["ǃ"] = {title = "postalveolar click", link = "w:Alveolar clicks", XSAMPA = "!\\"},
    ["‼"] = {title = "subapical retroflex", link = "w:Retroflex clicks", XSAMPA = ""}, --  NOT IN X-SAMPA
    ["ǂ"] = {title = "palatal click", link = "w:Palatal clicks", XSAMPA = "=\\"},
    ["ǁ"] = {title = "alveolar lateral click", link = "w:Lateral clicks", XSAMPA = "|\\|\\"},

    -- implosives
    ["ɓ"] = {title = "voiced bilabial implosive", link = "w:Voiced bilabial implosive", XSAMPA = "b_<"},
    ["ɗ"] = {title = "voiced alveolar implosive", link = "w:Voiced alveolar implosive", XSAMPA = "d_<"},
    ["ᶑ"] = {title = "retroflex implosive", link = "w:Voiced retroflex implosive", XSAMPA = ""}, -- NOT IN X-SAMPA
    ["ʄ"] = {title = "voiced palatal implosive", link = "w:Voiced palatal implosive", XSAMPA = "J\\_<"},
    ["ɠ"] = {title = "voiced velar implosive", link = "w:Voiced velar implosive", XSAMPA = "g_<"},
    ["ʛ"] = {title = "voiced uvular implosive", link = "w:Voiced uvular implosive", XSAMPA = "G\\_<"},

    -- ejectives
    ["ʼ"] = {title = "ejective", link = "w:Ejective consonant", XSAMPA = "_>"},

    -- CO-ARTICULATED CONSONANTS
    ["ʍ"] = {title = "voiceless labial-velar fricative", link = "w:Voiceless labio-velar approximant", XSAMPA = "W"},
    ["w"] = {title = "labial-velar approximant", link = "w:Labio-velar approximant", XSAMPA = "w"},
    ["ɥ"] = {title = "labial-palatal approximant", link = "w:Labialized palatal approximant", XSAMPA = "H"},
    ["ɧ"] = {title = "voiceless palatal-velar fricative", link = "w:Sj-sound", XSAMPA = "x\\"},

    -- should be handled in [[Module:IPA]] and not through this table
    -- BRACKETS
    -- ["//"] = {title = "morphophonemic", link = "w:morphophonemic", XSAMPA = "//"},
    -- ["/"] = {title = "phonemic", link = "w:phonemic", XSAMPA = "/"},
    -- ["["] = {title = "phonetic", link = "w:phonetic", XSAMPA = "["},
    -- ["["] = {title = "phonetic", link = "w:phonetic", XSAMPA = "]"},
    -- ["〈"] = {title = "orthographic", link = "w:orthographic", XSAMPA = "<"},
    -- ["〉"] = {title = "orthographic", link = "w:orthographic", XSAMPA = ">"},
    -- ["⟨"] = {title = "orthographic", link = "w:orthographic", XSAMPA = "<"},
    -- ["⟩"] = {title = "orthographic", link = "w:orthographic", XSAMPA = ">"},

    -- VOWELS

    -- close
    ["i"] = {title = "close front unrounded vowel", link = "w:Close front unrounded vowel", XSAMPA = "i"},
    ["y"] = {title = "close front rounded vowel", link = "w:Close front rounded vowel", XSAMPA = "y"},
    ["ɨ"] = {title = "close central unrounded vowel", link = "w:Close central unrounded vowel", XSAMPA = "1"},
    ["ʉ"] = {title = "close central rounded vowel", link = "w:Close central rounded vowel", XSAMPA = "}"},
    ["ɯ"] = {title = "close back unrounded vowel", link = "w:Close back unrounded vowel", XSAMPA = "M"},
    ["u"] = {title = "close back rounded vowel", link = "w:Close back rounded vowel", XSAMPA = "u"},

    -- near close
    ["ɪ"] = {title = "near-close near-front unrounded vowel", link = "w:Near-close near-front unrounded vowel", XSAMPA = "I"},
    ["ʏ"] = {title = "near-close near-front rounded vowel", link = "w:Near-close near-front rounded vowel", XSAMPA = "Y"},
    ["ᵻ"] = {title = "near-close central unrounded vowel", link = "w:Near-close central unrounded vowel", XSAMPA = "I\\"},
    --["ɪ̈"] = {title = "near-close central unrounded vowel", link = "w:near-close central unrounded vowel", XSAMPA = "I\\"}, -- (alternative) --TOMOVE
    ["ᵿ"] = {title = "near-close central rounded vowel", link = "w:Near-close central rounded vowel", XSAMPA = "U\\"},
    --["ʊ̈"] = {title = "near-close central rounded vowel", link = "w:near-close central rounded vowel", XSAMPA = "U\\"}, -- (alternative) --TOMOVE
    ["ʊ"] = {title = "near-close near-back rounded vowel", link = "w:Near-close near-back vowel", XSAMPA = "U"},

    --close mid
    ["e"] = {title = "close-mid front unrounded vowel", link = "w:Close-mid front unrounded vowel", XSAMPA = "e"},
    ["ø"] = {title = "close-mid front rounded vowel", link = "w:Close-mid front rounded vowel", XSAMPA = "2"},
    ["ɘ"] = {title = "close-mid central unrounded vowel", link = "w:Close-mid central unrounded vowel", XSAMPA = "@\\"},
    ["ɵ"] = {title = "close-mid central rounded vowel", link = "w:Close-mid central rounded vowel", XSAMPA = "8"},
    ["ɤ"] = {title = "close-mid back unrounded vowel", link = "w:Close-mid back unrounded vowel", XSAMPA = "7"},
    ["o"] = {title = "close-mid back rounded vowel", link = "w:Close-mid back rounded vowel", XSAMPA = "o"},

    -- mid
    ["ə"] = {title = "schwa", link = "w:Schwa", XSAMPA = "@"},
    ["ɚ"] = {title = "schwa+r", link = "w:R-colored vowel", XSAMPA = "@`"},

    -- open mid
    ["ɛ"] = {title = "open-mid front unrounded vowel", link = "w:Open-mid front unrounded vowel", XSAMPA = "E"},
    ["œ"] = {title = "open-mid front rounded vowel", link = "w:Open-mid front rounded vowel", XSAMPA = "9"},
    ["ɜ"] = {title = "open-mid central unrounded vowel", link = "w:Open-mid central unrounded vowel", XSAMPA = "3"},
    ["ɝ"] = {title = "open-mid central unrounded vowel+r", link = "w:R-colored vowel", XSAMPA = "3`"},
    ["ɞ"] = {title = "open-mid central rounded vowel", link = "w:Open-mid central rounded vowel", XSAMPA = "3\\"},
    ["ʌ"] = {title = "open-mid back unrounded vowel", link = "w:Open-mid back unrounded vowel", XSAMPA = "V"},
    ["ɔ"] = {title = "open-mid back rounded vowel", link = "w:Open-mid back rounded vowel", XSAMPA = "O"},

    -- near open
    ["æ"] = {title = "near-open front unrounded vowel", link = "w:Near-open front unrounded vowel", XSAMPA = "{"},
    ["ɐ"] = {title = "near-open central vowel", link = "w:Near-open central vowel", XSAMPA = "6"},

    -- open
    ["a"] = {title = "open front unrounded vowel", link = "w:Open front unrounded vowel", XSAMPA = "a"},
    ["ɶ"] = {title = "open front rounded vowel", link = "w:Open front rounded vowel", XSAMPA = "&"},
    ["ɑ"] = {title = "open back unrounded vowel", link = "w:Open back unrounded vowel", XSAMPA = "A"},
    ["ɒ"] = {title = "open back rounded vowel", link = "w:Open back rounded vowel", XSAMPA = "Q"},

    -- SUPRASEGMENTALS
    ["ˈ"] = {title = "primary stress", link = "w:Stress (linguistics)", XSAMPA = "\""},
    -- ["???"] = {title = "extra stress: no Unicode char; double primary stress instead", link = "w:extra stress: no Unicode char; double primary stress instead", XSAMPA = ""}, --TOMOVE:3
    ["ˌ"] = {title = "secondary stress", link = "w:Secondary stress", XSAMPA = "%"},
    ["ː"] = {title = "long", link = "w:Length (phonetics)", XSAMPA = ":"},
    ["ˑ"] = {title = "half long", link = "w:Length (phonetics)", XSAMPA = ":\\"},
    ["̆"] = {title = "extra-short", link = "w:Length (phonetics)", XSAMPA = "_X"},
    --["%."] = {title = "syllable break", link = "w:syllable break", XSAMPA = "."}, --TOMOVE
    ["‿"] = {title = "linking mark (absence of a break)", link = "w:Tie (typography)#International_Phonetic_Alphabet", XSAMPA = "-\\"},

    [" "] = {title = "separator", link = "w:separator", XSAMPA = "-"},

    -- TONE

    -- level tones
    ["˥"] = {title = "top", link = "w:Tone letter", XSAMPA = "_T"},
    ["˦"] = {title = "high", link = "w:Tone letter", XSAMPA = "_H"},
    ["˧"] = {title = "mid", link = "w:Tone letter", XSAMPA = "_M"},
    ["˨"] = {title = "low", link = "w:Tone letter", XSAMPA = "_L"},
    ["˩"] = {title = "bottom", link = "w:Tone letter", XSAMPA = "_B"},

    ["̋"] = {title = "extra high tone", link = "w:Tone letter", XSAMPA = "_T"},
    ["́"] = {title = "high tone", link = "w:Tone letter", XSAMPA = "_H"},
    ["̄"] = {title = "mid tone", link = "w:Tone letter", XSAMPA = "_M"},
    ["̀"] = {title = "low tone", link = "w:Tone letter", XSAMPA = "_L"},
    ["̏"] = {title = "extra low tone", link = "w:Tone letter", XSAMPA = "_B"},

    -- tone terracing
    ["ꜛ"] = {title = "upstep", link = "w:Upstep", XSAMPA = "^"},
    ["ꜜ"] = {title = "downstep", link = "w:Downstep", XSAMPA = "!"},

    -- contour tones
    ["̌"] = {title = "rising tone", link = "w:Tone (linguistics)", XSAMPA = "_/"}, -- or "_R"
    ["̂"] = {title = "falling tone", link = "w:Tone (linguistics)", XSAMPA = "_\\"}, -- or "_F"
    ["᷄"] = {title = "high rising tone", link = "w:Tone (linguistics)", XSAMPA = "_H_T"},
    ["᷅"] = {title = "low rising tone", link = "w:Tone (linguistics)", XSAMPA = "_B_L"},
    ["᷇"] = {title = "high falling tone", link = "w:Tone (linguistics)", XSAMPA = "_T_H"},
    ["᷆"] = {title = "low falling tone", link = "w:Tone (linguistics)", XSAMPA = "_L_B"},
    ["᷈"] = {title = "rising falling tone (peaking)", link = "w:Tone (linguistics)", XSAMPA = "_R_F"},
    ["᷉"] = {title = "dipping", link = "w:Tone (linguistics)", XSAMPA = "_F_R"}, -- [extrapolated from the chart -- please confirm]

    -- intonation
    ["|"] = {title = "minor (foot) group", link = "w:Prosodic unit", XSAMPA = "|"},
    ["‖"] = {title = "major (intonation) group", link = "w:Prosodic unit", XSAMPA = "||"},
    ["↗"] = {title = "global rise", link = "w:Intonation (linguistics)", XSAMPA = "<R>"},
    ["↘"] = {title = "global fall", link = "w:Intonation (linguistics)", XSAMPA = "<F>"},

    -- DIACRITICS

    -- syllabicity & releases
    ["̩"] = {title = "syllabi ", link = "w:Syllabic consonant", XSAMPA = "="}, -- (or "_="
    ["̯"] = {title = "non-syllabic", link = "w:Semivowel", XSAMPA = "_^"},
    ["ʰ"] = {title = "aspirated", link = "w:Aspirated consonant", XSAMPA = "_h"},
    ["ⁿ"] = {title = "nasal release", link = "w:Nasal release", XSAMPA = "_n"},
    ["ˡ"] = {title = "lateral release", link = "w:Lateral release (phonetics)", XSAMPA = "_l"},
    ["̚"] = {title = "no audible release", link = "w:No audible release", XSAMPA = "_}"},

    -- phonation
    ["̥"] = {title = "voiceless", link = "w:Voicelessness", XSAMPA = "_0"},
    ["̬"] = {title = "voiced", link = "w:Voice (phonetics)", XSAMPA = "_v"},
    ["̤"] = {title = "breathy voice", link = "w:Breathy voice", XSAMPA = "_t"},
    ["̰"] = {title = "creaky voice", link = "w:Creaky voice", XSAMPA = "_k"},
    ["᷽"] = {title = "strident", link = "w:Strident vowel", XSAMPA = "_%\\"}, -- NOT IN X-SAMPA, source http://www.kneequickie.com/kq/Z-SAMPA

    -- primary articulation
    ["̪"] = {title = "dental", link = "w:Dental consonant", XSAMPA = "_d"},
    ["̺"] = {title = "apical", link = "w:Apical consonant", XSAMPA = "_a"},
    ["̻"] = {title = "laminal", link = "w:Laminal consonant", XSAMPA = "_m"},
    ["̟"] = {title = "advanced", link = "w:Relative articulation#Advanced_and_retracted", XSAMPA = "_+"},
    ["̠"] = {title = "retracted", link = "w:Relative articulation#Retracted", XSAMPA = "_-"},
    ["̼"] = {title = "linguolabial", link = "w:Linguolabial consonant", XSAMPA = "_N"},
    ["̈"] = {title = "centralized", link = "w:Relative articulation#Centralized_vowels", XSAMPA = "_\""},
    ["̽"] = {title = "mid-centralized", link = "Relative articulation#Mid-centralized_vowel", XSAMPA = "_x"},
    ["̞"] = {title = "lowered", link = "w:Relative articulation#Raised_and_lowered", XSAMPA = "_o"},
    ["̝"] = {title = "raised", link = "w:Relative articulation#Raised_and_lowered", XSAMPA = "_r"},
    ["͡"] = {title = "coarticulated", link = "w:Co-articulated consonant", XSAMPA = "__"}, -- NOT IN X-SAMPA, Wiktionary-specific

    -- secondary articulation
    ["ʷ"] = {title = "labialized", link = "w:Labialization", XSAMPA = "_w"},
    ["ʲ"] = {title = "palatalized", link = "w:Palatalization (phonetics)", XSAMPA = { "_j" } },
    ["ˠ"] = {title = "velarized", link = "w:Velarization", XSAMPA = "_G"},
    ["ˤ"] = {title = "pharyngealized", link = "w:Pharyngealization", XSAMPA = "_?\\"},
    ["ɫ"] = {title = "velarized alveolar lateral approximant", link = "w:Alveolar lateral approximant", XSAMPA = "5"}, -- also see _e
    ["̴"] = {title = "velarized or pharyngealized; also see 5", link = "w:Velarization", XSAMPA = "_e"},
    ["̹"] = {title = "more rounded", link = "w:Roundedness", XSAMPA = "_O"},
    ["̜"] = {title = "less rounded", link = "w:Roundedness", XSAMPA = "_c"},
    ["̃"] = {title = "nasalization", link = "w:Nasalization", XSAMPA = "~"}, -- or _~
    ["˞"] = {title = "rhotacization in vowels, retroflexion in consonants", link = "w:R-colored vowel", XSAMPA = "`"}, -- (IPA uses separate symbols for consonants, see t` for an example)
    ["̘"] = {title = "advanced tongue root", link = "w:Advanced and retracted tongue root", XSAMPA = "_A"},
    ["̙"] = {title = "retracted tongue root", link = "w:Advanced and retracted tongue root", XSAMPA = "_q"},

}

m.symbols[2] = {
     -- TODO
    --["%("] = {},
    --["%)"] = {},

    ["ːː"] = {title = "extra long", link = "w:Length (phonetics)", XSAMPA = ":"},

    ["r̥"] = {title = "voiceless alveolar trill", link = "w:Voiceless alveolar trill"},
    ["ɬ’"] = {title = "alveolar lateral ejective fricative", link = "w:Alveolar lateral ejective fricative"},
}
m.symbols[3] = {
    ["d͡ʒ"] = {title = "voiced palato-alveolar affricate", link = "w:Voiced palato-alveolar affricate"},
    ["ɡ͡ɣ"] = {title = "voiced velar affricate", link = "w:Affricate consonant"},
    ["t͡s"] = {title = "voiceless alveolar sibilant affricate", link = "w:Voiceless alveolar affricate"},
    ["t͡ʃ"] = {title = "voiceless palato-alveolar affricate", link = "w:Voiceless palato-alveolar affricate"},
}
m.symbols[4] = {
    ["ǃ͡qʼ"] = {title = "alveolar linguo-glottalic stop", link = "w:Ejective-contour clicks"},
    ["ǁ͡χʼ"] = {title = "lateral linguo-glottalic affricate (homorganic)", link = "w:Ejective-contour clicks"},
}
m.symbols[5] = {
    ["k͡ʟ̝̊"] = {title = "voiceless velar lateral affricate", link = "w:Voiceless velar lateral affricate"},
    ["ᶢǀ͡qʼ"] = {title = "voiced dental linguo-glottalic stop", link = "w:Ejective-contour clicks"},
    ["ǂ͡kxʼ"] = {title = "palatal linguo-glottalic affricate (heterorganic)", link = "w:Ejective-contour clicks"},
}
m.symbols[6] = {
    ["k͡ʟ̝̊ʼ"] = {title = "velar lateral ejective affricate", link = "w:Velar lateral ejective affricate"},
    ["ᶢʘ͡kxʼ"] = {title = "voiced labial linguo-glottalic affricate", link = "w:Ejective-contour clicks"},
}

m.phonemes = {}
m.phonemes["nl"] = {
	"m", "n", "ŋ",
	"p", "b", "t", "d", "k", "ɡ",
	"f", "v", "s", "z", "ʃ", "ʒ", "x", "ɣ", "ɦ",
	"ʋ", "l", "j", "r",
	"ɪ", "ʏ", "ɛ", "ə", "ɔ", "ɑ",
	"i", "iː", "y", "yː", "u", "uː", "eː", "øː", "oː", "ɛː", "œː", "ɔː", "aː",
	"ɛi̯", "œy̯", "ɔi̯", "ɑu̯", "ɑi̯",
	"iu̯", "yu̯", "ui̯", "eːu̯", "oːi̯", "aːi̯",
	"ˈ", "ˌ", ".", " ",
	}
m.phonemes["hy"] = {
	"ɑ", "b", "ɡ", "d", "ɛ", "z", "ɛ", "ə", "tʰ", "ʒ", "i", "l", "χ", "t͡s",
	"k", "h", "d͡z", "ʁ", "t͡ʃ", "m", "j", "n", "ʃ", "ɔ", "t͡ʃʰ", "p", "d͡ʒ",
	"r", "s", "v", "t", "ɾ", "t͡sʰ", "v", "pʰ", "kʰ", "ɔ", "f", "ŋɡ", "ŋk", "ŋχ",
	"ˈ", "ˌ", ".", " ", "ː",
	}
return m