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This module will transliterate Ancient Greek language text per WT:GRC TR. It is used to transliterate Cappadocian Greek, Paeonian, Old Ossetic, Pontic Greek, and Ancient Macedonian.

The module should preferably not be called directly from templates or other modules. To use it from a template, use {{xlit}}. Within a module, use Module:languages#Language:transliterate.

For testcases, see Module:grc-translit/testcases.


tr(text, lang, sc)
Transliterates a given piece of text written in the script specified by the code sc, and language specified by the code lang. When the transliteration fails, returns nil.

2 tests failed. (refresh)

Text Expected Actual
testcases for tr function in Module:grc-translit:
Passed λόγος lógos lógos
Passed σφίγξ sphínx sphínx
Passed ϝάναξ wánax wánax
Passed οἷαι hoîai hoîai
current problems
Failed Υἱός '''Hu'''iós '''U'''hiós
Passed ταῦρος taûros taûros
Passed νηῦς nēûs nēûs
Passed σῦς sûs sûs
Passed ὗς hûs hûs
Passed γυῖον guîon guîon
Passed ἀναῡ̈τέω anaṻtéō anaṻtéō
Passed δαΐφρων daḯphrōn daḯphrōn
vowel length
Passed τῶν tôn tôn
Passed τοὶ toì toì
Passed τῷ tôi tôi
Passed τούτῳ toútōi toútōi
Passed σοφίᾳ sophíāi sophíāi
Passed μᾱ̆νός mānós mānós
h (rough breathing)
Passed ho ho
Passed οἱ hoi hoi
Passed εὕρισκε heúriske heúriske
Passed ὑϊκός huïkós huïkós
Passed πυρρός purrhós purrhós
Passed ῥέω rhéō rhéō
Passed σάἁμον sáhamon sáhamon
Passed Ὀδυσσεύς Odusseús Odusseús
Passed Εἵλως Heílōs Heílōs
Passed ᾍδης Hā́idēs Hā́idēs
Passed ἡ Ἑλήνη hē Helḗnē hē Helḗnē
Passed 𐠠𐠒𐠯𐠗 pi-lo-ti-mo pi-lo-ti-mo
Passed ἔχεις μοι εἰπεῖν, ὦ Σώκρατες, ἆρα διδακτὸν ἡ ἀρετή; ékheis moi eipeîn, ô Sṓkrates, âra didaktòn hē aretḗ? ékheis moi eipeîn, ô Sṓkrates, âra didaktòn hē aretḗ?
Passed τί τηνικάδε ἀφῖξαι, ὦ Κρίτων; ἢ οὐ πρῲ ἔτι ἐστίν; tí tēnikáde aphîxai, ô Krítōn? ḕ ou prṑi éti estín? tí tēnikáde aphîxai, ô Krítōn? ḕ ou prṑi éti estín?
Passed τούτων φωνήεντα μέν ἐστιν ἑπτά· α ε η ι ο υ ω. toútōn phōnḗenta mén estin heptá; a e ē i o u ō. toútōn phōnḗenta mén estin heptá; a e ē i o u ō.
Passed πήγ(νῡμῐ) pḗg(nūmi) pḗg(nūmi)
HTML entities
Passed καλός καὶ ἀγαθός kalós kaì agathós kalós kaì agathós
Passed καλός καὶ ἀγαθός kalós kaì agathós kalós kaì agathós

local export = {}

local m_data = require('Module:grc-utilities/data')
local tokenize = require('Module:grc-utilities').tokenize

local ufind = mw.ustring.find
local ugsub = mw.ustring.gsub
local U = mw.ustring.char
local ulower = mw.ustring.lower
local uupper = mw.ustring.upper

local UTF8char = '[%z\1-\127\194-\244][\128-\191]*'

-- Diacritics
local diacritics = m_data.named

-- Greek
local acute = diacritics.acute
local grave = diacritics.grave
local circumflex = diacritics.circum
local diaeresis = diacritics.diaeresis
local smooth = diacritics.smooth
local rough = diacritics.rough
local macron = diacritics.macron
local breve = diacritics.breve
local subscript = diacritics.subscript

-- Latin
local hat = diacritics.Latin_circum

local macron_diaeresis = macron .. diaeresis .. "?" .. hat
local a_subscript = '^[αΑ].*' .. subscript .. '$'
local velar = 'κγχξ'

local tt = {
	-- Vowels
	["α"] = "a",
	["ε"] = "e",
	["η"] = "e" .. macron,
	["ι"] = "i",
	["ο"] = "o",
	["υ"] = "u",
	["ω"] = "o" .. macron,

	-- Consonants
	["β"] = "b",
	["γ"] = "g",
	["δ"] = "d",
	["ζ"] = "z",
	["θ"] = "th",
	["κ"] = "k",
	["λ"] = "l",
	["μ"] = "m",
	["ν"] = "n",
	["ξ"] = "x",
	["π"] = "p",
	["ρ"] = "r",
	["σ"] = "s",
	["ς"] = "s",
	["τ"] = "t",
	["φ"] = "ph",
	["χ"] = "kh",
	["ψ"] = "ps",
	-- Archaic letters
	["ϝ"] = "w",
	["ϻ"] = "ś",
	["ϙ"] = "q",
	["ϡ"] = "š",
	["ͷ"] = "v",
	-- Incorrect characters: see [[Wiktionary:About Ancient Greek#Miscellaneous]].
	-- These are tracked by [[Module:script utilities]].
	["ϐ"] = "b",
	["ϑ"] = "th",
	["ϰ"] = "k",
	["ϱ"] = "r",
	["ϲ"] = "s",
	["ϕ"] = "ph",
	-- Diacritics
	-- unchanged: macron, diaeresis, grave, acute
	[breve] = '',
	[smooth] = '',
	[rough] = '',
	[circumflex] = hat,
	[subscript] = 'i',

function, lang, sc)
	-- If the script is given as Cprt, then forward the transliteration to that module.
	-- This should not be necessary, as [[Module:translit-redirect]] redirects
	-- to this module only if script is polytonic.
	if sc == "Cprt" then
		-- [[Special:WhatLinksHere/Template:tracking/grc-translit/Cprt]]
		return require('Module:Cprt-translit').tr(text, lang, sc)
	if text == '῾' then
		return 'h'
		Replace semicolon or Greek question mark with regular question mark,
		except after an ASCII alphanumeric character (to avoid converting
		semicolons in HTML entities).
	text = ugsub(text, "([^A-Za-z0-9])[;" .. U(0x37E) .. "]", "%1?")
	-- Handle the middle dot. It is equivalent to semicolon or colon, but semicolon is probably more common.
	text = text:gsub("·", ";")
	local tokens = tokenize(text)

	--now read the tokens
	local output = {}
	for i, token in pairs(tokens) do
		-- Convert token to lowercase and substitute each character
		-- for its transliteration
		local translit = ulower(token):gsub(UTF8char, tt)
		local next_token = tokens[i + 1]
		if token == 'γ' and next_token and velar:find(next_token, 1, true) then
			-- γ before a velar should be <n>
			translit = 'n'
		elseif token == 'ρ' and tokens[i - 1] == 'ρ' then
			-- ρ after ρ should be <rh>
			translit = 'rh'
		elseif ufind(token, a_subscript) then
			-- add macron to ᾳ
			translit = ugsub(translit, '([aA])', '%1' .. macron)
		if token:find(rough) then
			if ufind(token, '^[Ρρ]') then
				translit = translit .. 'h'
			else -- vowel
				translit = 'h' .. translit
		-- Remove macron from a vowel that has a circumflex.
		if ufind(translit, macron_diaeresis) then
			translit = translit:gsub(macron, '')
		-- Capitalize first character of transliteration.
		if token ~= ulower(token) then
			translit = translit:gsub("^" .. UTF8char, uupper)
		table.insert(output, translit)
	output = table.concat(output)
	return output

return export