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This Proto-Hurro-Urartian entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.





Unknown; possibly borrowed from Proto-Semitic *kinnār- (lyre), if not the reverse,[1] which is however surely of foreign origin since non-identical homorganic second and third root consonants are disallowed for a Semitic word.[2][3]




  1. lyre, harp




  1. ^ ÙZ×BALAG, a combination of the signs 𒍚 (ÙZ) and 𒁆 (BALAG), is an exceedingly rare ligature and not currently available in Unicode.

Further reading

  • Ivanov, Vjač. Vs. (1985) “Ob otnošenii xattskovo jazyka k severozapadnokavkazskim [Hattic and North Caucasian]”, in B. B. Piotrovskij et al., editors, Drevnjaja Anatolija (in Russian), Moscow: Nauka, page 49 of 26–59
  • Kassian, A. (2009) “Hattic as a Sino-Caucasian language”, in Ugarit-Forschungen[4], volume 41, pages 394–396


  1. ^ Noonan, Benjamin J. (2019) Non-Semitic Loanwords in the Hebrew Bible: A Lexicon of Language Contact (Linguistic Studies in Ancient West Semitic; 14), University Park, Pennsylvania: Eisenbrauns, →ISBN, page 126
  2. ^ Greenberg, Joseph Harold (1950) “The Patterning of Root Morphemes in Semitic”, in Word[1], volume 6, number 2, →DOI, page 162, point 2
  3. ^ Vernet i Pons, Eulàlia (2011 March 1) “Semitic Root Incompatibilities and Historical Linguistics”, in Journal of Semitic Studies, volume 56, number 1, →DOI, page 4
  4. ^ Harry A., Hoffner Jr., Melchert, H. Craig (2008) A Grammar of the Hittite Language[2], volume Part 1: Reference Grammar, Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, page 57
  5. ^ Martirosyan, Hrach (2019) “Armenian musical instruments: three etymologies”, in Tatevik Shakhkulyan, editor, Komitas Museum-Institute Yearbook, vol. IV[3], Yerevan: Komitas Museum-Institute, pages 187–189, deriving the Hattic and Armenian from "Mediterranean–Pontic" substrate *gʰindʰara-, a prenasalized form of *gʰidʰara-, whence κιθάρα (kithára)