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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



*gʷéru n[1][2]

  1. spit, skewer
  2. spear, throwing spear


Athematic, proterokinetic
nominative *gʷéru
genitive *gʷréws
singular dual plural
nominative *gʷéru *gʷérwih₁ *gʷéruh₂
vocative *gʷéru *gʷérwih₁ *gʷéruh₂
accusative *gʷéru *gʷérwih₁ *gʷéruh₂
genitive *gʷréws *? *gʷréwoHom
ablative *gʷréws *? *gʷrúmos
dative *gʷréwey *? *gʷrúmos
locative *gʷréw, *gʷréwi *? *gʷrúsu
instrumental *gʷrúh₁ *? *gʷrúmis


  • Proto-Celtic: *beru (spit)[3] (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Germanic: *kweru (sharp stick)
  • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *gáru
  • Proto-Italic: *gʷeru (spit)[2] (see there for further descendants)


  1. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959) “*gʷeru-”, in Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume 2, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 479
  2. 2.0 2.1 De Vaan, Michiel (2008) “venu, -ūs”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 668:*gʷer(H)-u- 'spit'
  3. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009) “*beru-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 62
  4. ^ Rastorgujeva, V. S., Edelʹman, D. I. (2007) “*²grau-, *²garṷ-”, in Etimologičeskij slovarʹ iranskix jazykov [Etymological Dictionary of Iranian Languages] (in Russian), volume III, Moscow: Vostochnaya Literatura, page 290