Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/priHós

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From *preyH- +‎ *-ós.

Adjective[edit]

*priHós[1][2][3][4]

  1. dear, beloved
  2. happy, free

Inflection[edit]

Thematic
masculine feminine
nominative *priHós *priHéh₂
genitive *priHósyo *priHéh₂s
masculine singular dual plural
nominative *priHós *priHóh₁ *priHóes
vocative *priHé *priHóh₁ *priHóes
accusative *priHóm *priHóh₁ *priHóms
genitive *priHósyo *? *priHóHom
ablative *priHéad *? *priHómos
dative *priHóey *? *priHómos
locative *priHéy, *priHóy *? *priHóysu
instrumental *priHóh₁ *? *priHṓys
feminine singular dual plural
nominative *priHéh₂ *priHéh₂h₁(e) *priHéh₂es
vocative *priHéh₂ *priHéh₂h₁(e) *priHéh₂es
accusative *priHā́m *priHéh₂h₁(e) *priHéh₂m̥s
genitive *priHéh₂s *? *priHéh₂oHom
ablative *priHéh₂s *? *priHéh₂mos
dative *priHéh₂ey *? *priHéh₂mos
locative *priHéh₂, *priHéh₂i *? *priHéh₂su
instrumental *priHéh₂h₁ *? *priHéh₂bʰi
neuter singular dual plural
nominative *priHóm *priHóy(h₁) *priHéh₂
vocative *priHóm *priHóy(h₁) *priHéh₂
accusative *priHóm *priHóy(h₁) *priHéh₂
genitive *priHósyo *? *priHóHom
ablative *priHéad *? *priHómos
dative *priHóey *? *priHómos
locative *priHéy, *priHóy *? *priHóysu
instrumental *priHóh₁ *? *priHṓys

Derived terms[edit]

  • *priH-eh₂yéti ~ *priH-eh₂-ti[2][1] (verbal derivative[5])
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *prīˀjā́ˀtei
      • Proto-Slavic: *prijati (to please) (see there for further descendants)
        • *prijateľь (friend) (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Germanic: *frijōną (to love, to free) (see there for further descendants)
      • *frijōndz (companion, friend) (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *priHaHyáti
  • *priH-(y-)éh₂ f (beloved (woman), wife)[6]
  • *priH-ṓn m (beloved (man), husband)
    • Proto-Germanic: *frijô (see there for further descendants)

Descendants[edit]

  • Proto-Celtic: *ɸriyos (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Germanic: *frijaz (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *priHás (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Italic: *prijos
    • ? Latin: pro-prius (see there for further descendants)

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q. (2006) The Oxford introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European world, Oxford University Press, page 222: “*prihₓós
  2. 2.0 2.1 Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*fri(j)ōn-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 155: “*priH-o-”
  3. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “proprius”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 493: “*priH-o-”
  4. ^ Ringe, Donald (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English; 1)‎[1], Oxford: Oxford University Press, →ISBN
  5. ^ Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q. (2006) The Oxford introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European world, Oxford University Press, page 343
  6. ^ Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q. (2006) The Oxford introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European world, Oxford University Press, page 208: “*prihₓehₐ-