Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/priHós

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From *preyH- +‎ *-ós.

Adjective[edit]

*priHós[1][2][3][4]

  1. dear, beloved
  2. happy, free

Inflection[edit]

Thematic
masculine feminine
nominative *priHós *priHéh₂
genitive *priHósyo *priHéh₂s
masculine singular dual plural
nominative *priHós *priHóh₁ *priHóes
vocative *priHé *priHóh₁ *priHóes
accusative *priHóm *priHóh₁ *priHóns
genitive *priHósyo *? *priHóoHom
ablative *priHéad *? *priHómos
dative *priHóey *? *priHómos
locative *priHéy, *priHóy *? *priHóysu
instrumental *priHóh₁ *? *priHṓys
feminine singular dual plural
nominative *priHéh₂ *priHéh₂h₁(e) *priHéh₂es
vocative *priHéh₂ *priHéh₂h₁(e) *priHéh₂es
accusative *priHā́m *priHéh₂h₁(e) *priHéh₂n̥s
genitive *priHéh₂s *? *priHéh₂oHom
ablative *priHéh₂s *? *priHéh₂mos
dative *priHéh₂ey *? *priHéh₂mos
locative *priHéh₂, *priHéh₂i *? *priHéh₂su
instrumental *priHéh₂h₁ *? *priHéh₂bʰi
neuter singular dual plural
nominative *priHóm *priHóy(h₁) *priHéh₂
vocative *priHóm *priHóy(h₁) *priHéh₂
accusative *priHóm *priHóy(h₁) *priHéh₂
genitive *priHósyo *? *priHóoHom
ablative *priHéad *? *priHómos
dative *priHóey *? *priHómos
locative *priHéy, *priHóy *? *priHóysu
instrumental *priHóh₁ *? *priHṓys

Descendants[edit]

  • Celtic: *ɸriyos (free)
    • Brythonic: *rɨð (see there for further descendants)
  • Germanic: *frijaz (see there for further descendants)
  • Indo-Iranian: *priHás
    • Indo-Aryan: [Term?]
    • Iranian: *priHáh
      • Avestan: 𐬟𐬭𐬌𐬌𐬀 (frya, dear, beloved, friend, well-wisher)
      • Khotanese: [script needed] (briya-, beloved, dear, treasured)
      • Parthian: [script needed] (fryẖ, dear, beloved)
      • Middle Persian: [script needed] (’fryẖ), [script needed] (’p̄ryẖ), [script needed] (’p̄ryy, to create, to bless)
        • Persian: فری (fari, dear, beloved, pleasing) (archaic)
      • Sogdian: [script needed] (pry-) (Buddhist), [script needed] (fry-, dear) (Christian, Manichaean)
  • Italic: *prijos
    • Latin: proprius (see there for further descendants)
  • *priH-eh₂yéti ~ *priH-eh₂-ti[2][1] (verbal derivative[1])
    • Balto-Slavic:
      • Slavic: *prijati (to please) (see there for further descendants)
    • Germanic: *frijōną (to love, to free) (see there for further descendants)
    • Indo-Iranian: *priHaHyáti
  • Unsorted formations:
    • Indo-Iranian: *priHmanaH
    • Indo-Iranian: [Term?]
      • Pashto: [script needed] (wrin, open, happy, sincere)

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q. (2006) The Oxford introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European world, Oxford University Press, page 222: “*prihₓós”
  2. 2.0 2.1 Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*fri(j)ōn-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 155: “*priH-o-”
  3. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “proprius”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 493: “*priH-o-”
  4. ^ Ringe, Don (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press