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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.




  1. to love, to please

Derived terms[edit]

  • *priH-né-H-ti ~ *priH-n-H-énti (nasal-infix present)[4]
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *priHnáHti
      • Proto-Indo-Aryan: *priHnáHti
      • Proto-Iranian: *friHnáHti (to rejoice, please)[5]
        • Avestan: 𐬟𐬭𐬍𐬥𐬁𐬌(frīnāi, to rejoice, please)
        • Proto-Iranian: *ā-friHnaHti[5]
          • Younger Avestan: 𐬁𐬟𐬭𐬍𐬥𐬁𐬨𐬌(āfrīnāmi, to bless)
          • Khotanese: [script needed] (āvun-, to approve)
          • Kurdish:
            Northern Kurdish: afrandin (to create)
            Central Kurdish: ئافراندن(afrandin, to create)
          • Parthian: [script needed] (’fryn-, to bless)
          • Middle Persian:
            • Manichaean: [script needed] (’fryn-), [script needed] (’fwr-), [script needed] (’pwr-, to create, to bless)
            • Book Pahlavi: [script needed] (’p̄lyn-), [script needed] (’p̄wl, to create, to bless)
          • Sogdian: [script needed] (’’pryn) (Buddhist), [script needed] (’fryn) (Christian), [script needed] (’’fryn), [script needed] (’’βryn, to create) (Manichaean)
          • Old Armenian: աւրհնեմ (awrhnem), օրհնեմ (ōrhnem)
  • *prḗy-s-t ~ *préy-s-n̥t (s-aorist)[4]
  • *príH-yeti (ye-present)[1]
  • *priH-men-
  • *priH-ós (beloved, happy)[1][3][2]
  • Unsorted formations:
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian:
      • Proto-Iranian:
        • Pashto: ورين(wrin, open, happy, sincere)


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*fri(j)ōn-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 155: “*priH-”
  2. 2.0 2.1 De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “proprius”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 493: “*priH-”
  3. 3.0 3.1 Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q. (2006) The Oxford introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European world, Oxford University Press, page 343: “*prihₓ-”
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Rix, Helmut, editor (2001), “*preiH-”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, →ISBN, page 87
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Cheung, Johnny (2007), “fraiH”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Iranian Verb (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 2), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 87: “*preiH-”
  6. ^ Derksen, Rick (2008), “*prijati”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 420: “*priH-”