User:Dan Polansky/Name

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Proper noun[edit]

  • common:proper noun is a word, and thus space-free.
  • Wiktionary:proper noun as used in L3 headings includes multi-word terms.
    • multi-word Wiktionary:proper noun – "New Hampshire", "New Zealand"

Location of "proper noun" in the taxonomy:

Standard option:

  • Word
    • Noun
      • Common noun
      • Proper noun
    • Adjective
    • Verb
    • ...

An invented option:

  • Word
    • Common word
      • Common noun
      • Common adjective
      • Verb
      • Adverb
      • ...
    • Proper word? (sounds odd) Name-like word?
      • Proper noun - Athens, Pericles, English (the language)
      • Proper adjective - Athenian (adjective), Periclean, English (of or related to English)


Hyponymy of name Wikisaurus:name:

  • name
    • being or creature name
      • person name
        • first name – "Joe"
        • surname – "Newton"
          • surname uniquely identifying a notable person – "Newton", "Darwin", "Jefferson"
        • full name – "Joe Newton"
      • animal name
        • dog name – "Fido", "Rex"
        • cat name – "Felix"
      • mythological being name - see also Category:Mythology
        • god name – "Zeus", "Odin", "Ganesha" (see also Wikisaurus:god)
        • other name - "Calliope" (muse), "Cronus" (titan), "Medusa" (gorgon)
      • fictional being name - from the literature of fiction
        • Mowgli (Kipling)
        • Bilbo, Frodo, Samwise, Gandalf, Shellob, etc. (Tolkien)
        • Moomin (Tove Jansson)
        • Harry Potter
        • ...
    • celestial object name
      • the Earth, the Moon, the Sun
      • Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uran, Neptun
      • the Milky Way
      • star name - Aldebaran, Arcturus, Betelgeuse, Proxima Centauri, Sirius
      • moon name - Atlas, Callisto, Calypso, Europa, Mimas, Triton, Umbriel
      • constellation name - Andromeda, Aquarius, Aries, Cancer, Capricornus
      • Halley's Comet
      • ...
    • geographic name - name of a geographic entity (includes name of Wikisaurus:landforms and more)
      • continent name (managably many)
      • country name (managably many)
      • state name
      • district name
      • city name
      • town name
      • village name
      • street name
      • river name
      • lake name
      • mountain name
      • mountain range name
      • ...
    • name of a work of art
      • name of a play – "Lysistrata", "Much Ado About Nothing"
      • name of a novel – "The Old Man and the Sea", "The Lord of the Rings"
      • name of a short story – "Boule de Suif"
      • name of a statue – "Hermes and the Infant Dionysus", "The Statue of Liberty"
      • name of a painting – "The Adoration of the Magi"
      • name of a movie – "20,000 Leagues Under the Sea"; see also W:List of Academy Award-winning films
      • name of a computer game – "Manic Miner", "World of Warcraft"
    • various name
      • name of a human organization - "United Nations", "General Electric", "Microsoft", "Google", "Bell Telephone Company"
      • name of a theorem - "Pythagorean theorem"
      • name of a battle - "Ragnarok", "The Battle of Waterloo"
      • name of a ship - "Beagle"*.
      • name of a conference - "Wikimania"
      • ... probably a hard-to-overview set of names for varied types of individual things


The meaning of "word":

  • option: space-free term - "black hole" is a phrase and not a word; it is a noun phrase and not a noun
  • option: space-allowing term - "black hole" is a word and a noun


Term for individuals as contrasted to classes, to be verified:

  • individual - used by Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, and by J. S. Mill[1] ("... as if all names had been (what none but proper names really are) marks put upon individuals; ...")
  • particular individual
  • specific entity - used in CFI; where else is this used?
  • particular thing
  • particular
  • individual object - used by J. S. Mill

Individuals not bearing names but terms:

  • numbers, when considered as individuals


The meaning of proper nouns or "proper names":

  • "For, as has already been remarked, proper names have strictly no meaning; they are mere marks for individual objects: and when a proper name is predicated ..." --J.S.Mill[2][3]
  • But meaning can be split into intension (Mill:connotation) and extension (Mill:denotation); while proper names can have no intension, they certainly do have an extension, that is the set of individual objects over which they range.
  • What makes the Czech "Londýn" a translation of the English "London", U.K. is not their being place names—as "Praha" is a place name too—but their having the same extensional meaning—the city of London, U.K.
  • The extension (or "reference" in other terminology) is the meaning of names, I say.

Name and proper noun[edit]

Name vs proper noun:

  • A distinction?
  • The etymon of "noun" is nōmen ("name").
  • Czech: name - "jméno"; noun - "podstatné jméno", adjective - "přídavné jméno", pronoun - "zájmeno"

"Proper name" vs "proper noun":

  • What other names are there but proper ones? Are there common names?
    • Mill has "general name":
      • "A general name is familiarly defined, a name which is capable of being truly affirmed, in the same sense, of each of an indefinite number of things. An individual or singular name is a name which is only capable of being truly affirmed, in the same sense, of one thing."[4]
    • So "proper name" makes an explicit contradistinction to "general name", which in the modern parlance is merely implied in "name".
  • CGEL[EncycloPetey]
    • proper noun
      • always a single word; always proper (what does "proper" mean?)
      • examples: Mohammad, England, or Neptune.
    • proper name
      • what is the def?
      • examples: John Milton, South Africa, or the Hundred Years' War.

Name and common noun[edit]

Names used as common nouns:

  • Mother Theresa - a person who is completely unselfish to the point of being saintly
  • Tom Jones - A desirable man of loose morals, prone to having sex with many women.
  • Abraham Lincoln - An emancipator or analogous reformer.
  • Einstein - an extremely clever person.
  • Lothario - A man whose chief interest is seducing women.
  • Rockefeller - A very rich person
  • Brigitte Bardot - A female beauty of an ideal, kittenish, pouty type.
  • Arnold Schwarzenegger - A muscleman.

Person name[edit]

Inclusion of person names:

  • Case: Inclusion of "Socrates"
    • Century 1911
      • "Socrates" excluded
      • "Socratic" included
      • "Socratic - Of or pertaining to the methods, style, doctrine, character, person or followers of the illustrious Athenian philosopher Socrates (about 470-399 B. C.)
      • Note: Similarly for "Demosthenes": "Demosthenes" excluded while "Demosthenic" included.
    • Oxford English Dictionary 1933
      • "Socrates" excluded
      • "Socratic", "Socrazite", "Socratism", and "Socratist" included
      • Socratic - of or pertaining to, characteristic of, Socrates the Athenian philosopher, or his philosophy, methods, character, etc.
      • Note: Similarly for "Demosthenes": "Demosthenes" excluded while "Demosthenic" included.
    • M-W Online
      • "Socrates" included
      • Socrates - circa 470–399 b.c. Greek philosopher
    • Wiktionary
      • Socrates - A Classical Greek philosopher.
      • Socratic - Of or characteristic of the philosopher Socrates or his philosophical methods and/or views.
  • Case: Inclusion of "London"
    • Century 1911
      • has no "London" in between non-name word entries
      • But: The Century Dictionary Cyclopedia of Names
        • Case: Leibnitz, Baron Gottfried Wilhelm von. Born at Leipsic, July 6, 1646: ...
        • Case: Lincoln, several places and several people including Lincoln, Abraham and Lincoln, Benjamin
        • Jack London excluded, but the places London are included
    • M-W Online
      • includes[5]
      • John Griffith 1876–1916 Jack London American writer
      • 1 city Canada in SE Ontario on Thames River population 352,395
      • 2 city & port SE England
    • Encarta
      • excludes Jack London[6]
      • includes two cities; see the section for Place names
    • Wiktionary
      • Jack London excluded
      • Three particular cities included

Surnames and space-free names of particular people in Wiktionary:

  • Philosophers: Anaxagoras, Aristotle (Aristotelian), Galileo (Galilean), Newton (Newtonian), Plato (Platonic), Pythagoras (Pythagorean), Socrates (Socratic), Xenophanes (Xenophanean)
  • Authors: Aeschylus, Euripides, Shakespeare, Sophocles, Gogol - disputed

Geographic name[edit]

Inclusion of geographic names:

  • Case: Inclusion of "London"
    • Century 1911[7]
      • "London" excluded
      • "Londoner", "Londonese", "Londonism", "Londonize" included
      • Londoner - A native or citizen of London in England.
    • M-W online[8]
      • "London" included
      • London - 1 city Canada in SE Ontario on Thames River population 352,395
      • London - 2 city & port SE England ∗ of United Kingdom formerly constituting an administrative county; comprises City of London or The City (approximately coextensive with ancient Lon·din·i·um \län-ˈdi-nē-əm, ˌlən-\; population 4000) & 32 other boroughs, which together are referred to as the metropolitan county of Greater London (area 632 sq miles or 1637 sq kilometers, population 6,377,900)

Terms: geographic name, geographical name, place name, name of geographic entity.

Geographic names that contain their entity type in the name include Hudson River, Cooper Creek, Lake Ontario, Atlantic Ocean, Adriatic Sea, Chesapeake Bay, Cape Horn, Mount Everest, Longs Peak, Death Valley, Copper Canyon, Red River Gorge, Mexico City, New York City, Cape Town, New York State, Main Street, Grant Avenue, Jack Kerouac Alley, Leicester Square, Piccadilly Circus, and Abbey Road. Some have the form "<noun-phrase-used-attributively> <entity-type>" (e.g. "Death Valley"), while some have the form "<adjective-phrase> <entity-type>" (e.g. "Atlantic Ocean").

Organizations concerned with geographic names include United States Board on Geographic Names, having published Principles, Policies, and Procedures for Domestic Geographic Names (pdf).

Dictionaries of geographical names (also User:Dan Polansky#Dictionary):

Searches for dictionaries of geographical names:

The Century Cyclopedia of Names[edit]

The Century Cyclopedia of Names, and appendix of the Century Dictionary 1911 in a separate volume.

Cases of inclusion:

  • Case: Leibnitz, Baron Gottfried Wilhelm von. Born at Leipsic, July 6, 1646: ...
  • Case: Lincoln, several places and several people including Lincoln, Abraham and Lincoln, Benjamin
  • Jack London excluded, but the places London are included

Preface: "This Cyclopedia of Names is an outgrowth of The Century Dictionary. It was part of the plan of that work to include in its final volume a somewhat fuller appendix of names of persons and places than had before been given in general dictionaries; but as the size of the book increased, it became obvious that this could not be done in the available space, and it was decided to place the appendix in a separate volume. The result, with many modifications of the original scheme, is the present work. It is entirely independent in subject and use, yet serves as a supplement to the dictionary by extending the name-list into regions which the dictionary could not occupy, and by enlarging its encyclopedic field. In character it is primarily a dictionary of proper names, givin their orthography and pronunciation and such explanation of them as is necessary for their identification; and, secondarily, a condensed encyclopedia in its somewhat fuller treatment of several thousands of the more important articles. ..."[9]

See also[edit]