Wiktionary:About Chinese/Jin

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Wiktionary uses the following system to transcribe Taiyuan dialect (old-style) of Jin Chinese. See Module:cjy-pron for the codes.


IPA Transcription Example Notes
/p/ b
/pʰx/ p
/m/ m
/f/ f
/v/ v
/t/ d
/tʰx/ t
/n/ n
/l/ l
/t͡s/ z
/t͡sʰ/ c
/s/ s
/ʐ/ r
/t͡ɕ/ j
/t͡ɕʰ/ q
/ɕ/ x
/k/ g
/kʰx/ k
/x/ h
/ɣ/ gh old-style; = new-style /ŋ/
/ŋ/ ng new-style; = old-style /ɣ/


IPA Transcription Example Notes
/z̩/ i only before /t͡s/, /t͡sʰ/, /s/
/i/ i
/u/ u
/y/ y
/əɻ/ er
/a/ a
/ia/ ia
/ua/ ua
/ɤ/ e
/uɤ/ ue
/ie/ ie
/ye/ ye
/ai/ ai
/uai/ uai
/ei/ ei
/uei/ ui
/au/ au
/iau/ iau
/əu/ eu
/iəu/ ieu
/æ̃/ an
/uæ̃/ uan
/ɒ̃/ on old-style; = new-style /aŋ/
/iɒ̃/ ion old-style; = new-style /iaŋ/
/uɒ̃/ uon old-style; = new-style /uaŋ/
/aŋ/ ang new-style; = old-style /ɒ̃/
/iaŋ/ iang new-style; = old-style /iɒ̃/
/uaŋ/ uang new-style; = old-style /uɒ̃/
/ə̃ŋ/ eng
/ĩŋ/ ing
/ũŋ/ ung
/ỹŋ/ yng
/aʔ/ ah many merged with /əʔ/ in new-style
/iaʔ/ iah
/uaʔ/ uah many merged with /uəʔ/ in new-style
/əʔ/ eh
/iəʔ/ ieh
/uəʔ/ ueh
/yəʔ/ yeh


Erhua is indicated with r after the original rhyme. For the rhyme -e (/ɤ/), an apostrophe is added before the r, i.e. -e'r (/ɤɻ/) to distinguish it from -er (/əɻ/).


Tone name Tone value Transcription Example Notes
level 11 1
rising 53 2
departing 45 3
dark checked 2 4
light checked 54 5 merged with dark checked in new-style

Tone sandhi[edit]