Wiktionary:About Chinese/Xiang

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Wiktionary uses the following system to transcribe Changsha dialect (old- and new-styles) of Xiang Chinese. See Module:hsn-pron for the codes.

Initials[edit]

IPA Transcription Example Notes
/p/ b
/pʰ/ p
/m/ m
/ɸ/ f
/t/ d
/tʰ/ t
/l̃/ l
/t͡s/ z merged with /t͡ɕ/ before /i/ in new-style
/t͡sʰ/ c merged with /t͡ɕʰ/ before /i/ in new-style
/s/ s merged with /ɕ/ before /i/ in new-style
/t͡ʂ/ zh merged with /t͡s/ in new-style
/t͡ʂʰ/ ch merged with /t͡sʰ/ in new-style
/ʂ/ sh merged with /s/ in new-style
/ʐ/ r
/t͡ɕ/ j
/t͡ɕʰ/ q
/n̠ʲ/ ny
/ɕ/ x
/k/ g
/kʰ/ k
/ŋ/ ng
/x/ h

Rhymes[edit]

IPA Transcription Example Notes
/z̩/ r only after /t͡s/, /t͡sʰ/, /s/
/ʐ̩/ r only after /t͡ʂ/, /t͡ʂʰ/, /ʂ/, /ʐ/
/i/ i
/u/ u
/y/ y
/a̠/ a
/ia̠/ ia
/ua̠/ ua
/ya̠/ ya
/o/ o
/io/ io
/ɤ̞/ e
/ie̞/ ie
/uɤ̞/ ue
/ye̞/ ye
/ai/ ai
/uai/ uai
/yai/ yai
/e̞i/ ei
/ue̞i/ uei
/ye̞i/ yei
/ɒu/ au
/iɒu/ iau
/əu/ ou
/iəu/ iou
/õ/ onn
/ə̃/ enn
/iẽ/ ienn
/yẽ/ yenn
/ən/ en
/in/ in
/uən/ un
/yn/ yn
/an/ an
/iæn/ ian
/uan/ uan
/yæn/ yan
/ʊŋ/ ong merged into /ən/ in new-style
/iʊŋ/ iong merged into /in/ in new-style
/m̩/ m
/n̩/ n

Tones[edit]

Tone name Tone value Transcription Example
dark level 33 1
light level 13 2
rising 41 3 使
dark departing 45 4
light departing 21 5
checked 24 6
neutral (unmarked)

Tone sandhi[edit]

  • (in quick speech)

References[edit]

  • 鮑厚星等《長沙方言研究》
  • 鮑厚星等《長沙方言詞典》
  • 李永明《長沙方言》
  • 鮑厚星《湘方言概要》