Wiktionary:About Chinese/references

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List of references in Chinese entries ({{zh-ref}}):


  • Adams, Douglas Q. (2013) A Dictionary of Tocharian B: Revised and Greatly Enlarged (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 10), Amsterdam, New York: Rodopi
  • Agui (阿贵) (2012), “《“林芝”词源及尼洋河流域的古代吐蕃小邦考》”, in Journal of the Northwest University for Nationalities (Philosophy and Social Science), issue 5, pages 154–158
  • Alves, Mark J. (2015). Assessing Old Chinese Loanwords in Vietnamese via Historical and Archaeological Data, University of London, SOAS.
  • Ashikaga, Ensho (1951), “Notes on Urabon (“Yü Lan P'ên, Ullambana”)”, in Journal of the American Oriental Society, volume 71, issue 1, pages 71–75


  • Bai, Wanru (白宛如) (1980), “广州话本字考”, in Fangyan, issue 3, pages 209–223
  • Bailey, Harold Walter (1979) Dictionary of Khotan Saka, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN
  • Ban, Chao (班弨); Su, Ruoyang (蘇若陽) (2017), ““荔枝”源于侗台语考 [A Textual Research on the Kam-Tai Origin of Lizhi “Lychee”]”, in Minority Languages of China, issue 4, pages 54–61
  • Bauer, Robert S. (1987), “In Search of Austro-Tai Strata in Southern Chinese Dialects”, in Computational Analyses of Asian and African Languages, issue 28, pages 53–65
  • Bauer, Robert S. (1991), “Sino-Tibetan *Vulva”, in Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area, volume 14, issue 1, pages 147–172
  • Bauer, Robert S. (1994), “Sino-Tibetan *kolo 'Wheel'”, in Sino-Platonic Papers, issue 47
  • Bauer, Robert S. (1996). “Identifying the Tai substratum in Cantonese”, Pan-Asiatic Linguistics: Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Languages and Linguistics, January 8-10, 1996, ed. Mahāwitthayālai Mahidon. Sathāban Wičhai Phāsā læ Watthanatham phư̄a Phatthanā Chonnabot. Salaya, Thailand: Institute of Language and Culture for Rural Development, Mahidol University, pp. 1806–1844.
  • Baxter, William H. (1992) A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, →ISBN
  • Baxter, William H.; Sagart, Laurent (1998), “Word formation in Old Chinese”, in Jerome Packard, editor, New Approaches to Chinese Word Formation: Morphology, Phonology and the Lexicon in Modern and Ancient Chinese, pages 35–76
  • Baxter, William H.; Sagart, Laurent (2014) Old Chinese: A New Reconstruction, New York: Oxford University Press
  • Beckwith, Christopher I. (2009) Empires of the Silk Road: A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present, Princeton University Press
  • Benedict, Paul (1972). Sino-Tibetan: A Conspectus. Princeton/Cambridge Studies in Chinese Linguistics, Issue 2.
  • Benedict, Paul (1976), “Sino-Tibetan: Another Look”, in Journal of the American Oriental Society, volume 96, issue 2, pages 167–197
  • Benedict, Paul (1979), “Four Forays into Karen Linguistic History”, in Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area, volume 5, issue 1, pages 1–35
  • Benedict, Paul (1986), “Archaic Chinese initials”, in Wang Li Memorial Volumes: English Volume, pages 25–71
  • Benedict, Paul (1990), “Austroasiatic loanwords in Sino-Tibetan”, in Mon-Khmer Studies Journal, issue 18–19, pages 1–13
  • Bi, Xinwei (畢新偉) (2013), “「她」字的來源與女性主體性——評《「她」字的文化史》 [The Origins of “She” and Female Subjectivity: A Review of «The Cultural History of “She”»]”, in 二十一世紀, page 139
  • Blench, Roger (2014). Reconstructing Austroasiatic prehistory. Unpublished.
  • Bodman, Nicholas (1980), “Proto-Chinese and Sino-Tibetan: Data Towards Establishing the Nature of the Relationship.”, in Frans van Coetsem and Linda R. Waugh, editor, Contributions to Historical Linguistics: Issues and Materials, Leiden, pages 34–199
  • Boodberg, Peter A. (1937), “Some Proleptical Remarks on the Evolution of Archaic Chinese”, in Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, volume 2, issue 3/4, pages 329–372
  • Bray, Francesca (1981), “Millet cultivation in China: a historical survey”, in Journal d'agriculture traditionnelle et de botanique appliquée, volume 28, issue 3, pages 291–307


  • Carr, Michael (1990), “Chinese Dragon Names”, in Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area, volume 13, issue 2, pages 87–189
  • Chamberlain, James R. (1977). An Introduction To Proto-Tai Zoology. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan.
  • Chan, Hsien-tz'u (詹憲慈) (1995) 《廣州語本字》 [The Source Words of Colloquial Cantonese], Hong Kong: Chinese University Press
  • Chan, Pak Fai (陳伯煇) (1998) 《論粵方言詞本字考釋》, Hong Kong: Zhonghua Book Company
  • Chen, Qingying (陈庆英) (1999), “《汉文“西藏”一词的来历简说》”, in 《燕京学报》, issue 6
  • Chen, Xiaojin (陈晓锦) (2010) 《泰国的三个汉语方言》, Guangzhou: Jinan University Press, →ISBN
  • Cheng, Chun-yuan (程俊源) (2014). 客家「新婦」之地理圖像. Published for 語言文化分佈與族群遷徙工作坊 (Workshop on the Relationship between Racial Migration and Distribution of Languages or Cultures).
  • Cheng, Hsiao-feng (鄭曉峯) (2010), “客家話的語言地理學研究:海陸話「韶早」的來源 [The Origin of shau5-tso2 ‘tomorrow’ in Hailu Hakka: A Linguistic Geography Approach]”, in Tsing Hua Journal of Chinese Studies, volume 40, issue 4, pages 713–733
  • Chi, Hsu-Sheng (季旭昇) (2010) 《說文新證》, Fuzhou: Fujian People's Publishing House
  • Chmielewski, Janusz (1958), “The problem of early Loan-words in Chinese as illustrated by the word p'u-t'ao.”, in Rocznik Orientalistyczny, volume 22, issue 2, pages 7–45
  • Chiu, Kaiming (裘開明) (1936), “The Introduction of Spectacles Into China”, in Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, volume 1, issue 2, pages 186–193
  • Chiu, Yun-ju (邱韻如) (2015), “《明清眼鏡之文本溯源與時空背景探查》 [Tracing the Origin of Eyeglasses in China by Analyzing Texts and Historico-geographical Background]”, in 中華科技史學會學刊, issue 20, pages 55–71
  • Chu, Taisong (儲泰松) (2002), “「和尚」的語源及其形義的演變 [Etymology of ‘Heshang’ and The Evolution of Its Forms and Meaning]”, in Studies in Language and Linguistics, issue 1, pages 83–90
  • Clauson, Sir Gerald (1972) An Etymological Dictionary of Pre-Thirteenth-Century Turkish, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • Clements, Jonathan (2014) An Armchair Traveller's History of the Silk Road, Haus Publishing, →ISBN
  • Coblin, W. South (1986) A Sinologist's Handlist of Sino-Tibetan Lexical Comparisons, Nettetal: Steyler Verlag
  • Coblin, W. South (1994), “A Compendium of Phonetics in Northwest Chinese”, in Journal of Chinese Linguistics Monograph Series, issue 7, pages 1–117, 119–504
  • Coblin, W. South (n.d.). A Short Piece on Mǐn Etymology.


  • Demiéville, P. (1950), “Archaïsmes de prononciation en chinois vulgaire.”, in T'oung Pao, issue 40, pages 1–59
  • DeLancey, Scott (2011). "On the Origins of Sinitic". In: Zhuo Jing-Schmidt (editor), Proceedings of the 23rd North American Conference on Chinese Linguistics (NACCL-23), volume 1, pp. 51–64. Eugene: University of Oregon.
  • Deng, Xiaohua (鄧曉華) (1994), “南方漢語中的古南島語成分”, in 《民族語文》 [Minority Languages of China], issue 3, pages 36–40
  • Dictionary Editing Office, Institute of Linguistics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (中国科学院语言研究所词典编辑室), editors (1973) 《现代汉语词典》 [A Dictionary of Current Chinese], Shiyongben (试用本) edition, Beijing: Commercial Press
  • Dictionary Editing Office, Institute of Linguistics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (中国社会科学院语言研究所词典编辑室), editors (2016) 《现代汉语词典》 [A Dictionary of Current Chinese], Seventh edition, Beijing: Commercial Press
  • Donkin, Robin Arthur (2003) Between East and West: The Moluccas and the Traffic in Spices Up to the Arrival of Europeans, American Philosophical Society, →ISBN



  • Gan, Yu'en (甘于恩) (1997), “广东粤方言人称代词的单复数形式”, in Zhongguo Yuwen, issue 5, pages 351–354
  • Gong, Hwang-cherng (龔煌城) (1995). The System of Finals in Proto-Sino-Tibetan. Journal of Chinese Linguistics Monograph Series No. 8, The Ancestry of the Chinese Language, pp. 41–92.
  • Guo, Bizhi (郭必之) (2003). 香港粤语疑问代词“点[tim³⁵]”的来源 (The Origin of the Hong Kong Cantonese Interrogative Pronoun [tim³⁵] (点)). In: 《语言学论丛》编委会, 《语言学论丛》, volume 27. Beijing: Commercial Press.
  • Guo, Moruo (郭沫若) (1931). 《甲骨文字研究》. Republished by 科學出版社, 1982.
  • Guo, Moruo (郭沫若) (1945). 《十批判書》. Republished by 人民出版社, 1982.


  • Handel, Zev Joseph (1997). A snake in the grass: an exploration of a slippery Sino-Tibetan etymon. 30th International Conference on Sino-Tibetan Languages and Linguistics. Beijing.
  • Handel, Zev Joseph (1998). The Medial Systems of Old Chinese and Proto-Sino-Tibetan. Ph. D. dissertation. University of California, Berkeley.
  • Handel, Zev Joseph (2008), “What is Sino-Tibetan? Snapshot of a Field and a Language Family in Flux”, in Language and Linguistics Compass, issue 2/3, pages 422–441
  • Handel, Zev Joseph (2009). Old Chinese Medials and Their Sino-Tibetan Origins: A Comparative Study. Language and Linguistics Monograph Series A18. Taipei: Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica.
  • Hashimoto, Mantaro (橋本萬太郎) (1978) 言語類型地理論 (Gengo ruikei chiri-ron) [Typological and Geographical Linguistics], Kōbundō
  • [HFC] Peking University, Department of Chinese Language and Literature. (北京大學中國語言文學系語言學教研室), editor ((Can we date this quote?)) 《漢語方言詞彙》 [Chinese Dialectal Lexicon], 2nd edition, Beijing: Yuwen Press, →ISBN
  • Hill, Nathan W. (2014), “Cognates of Old Chinese *-n, *-r, and *-j in Tibetan and Burmese”, in Cahiers de Linguistique Asie Orientale, issue 43, pages 91–109
  • Hong, Zhenhuan (洪震寰) (1994), “《眼镜在中国之发始考》”, in 《中国科技史料》, volume 15, issue 1, pages 71–75
  • Hsu, Dong-Bo (徐東伯) (2009), “The syllable in Old Chinese: sub-syllabic processes, syllable structure, and the status of medial glides”, in Journal of East Asian Linguistics, issue 18, page 361
  • Hu, Qingying (胡慶英) (2013). 「漣漪」考證. 華中人文論叢. 4 (01): 70–73.
  • Huang, Diancheng (黃典誠) (1980), “閩語人字的本義 [Original Meaning of the Word for “Person” in Min]”, in Fangyan, issue 4
  • Huang, Xiaoya (黃小婭) (2011), “试论广州方言的基本特征词“煲””, in Journal of Jinan University (Philosophy and Social Sciences), issue 3, pages 45–149
  • Huang, Xingtao (黃興濤); Chen, Peng (陳鵬) (2010), “《近代中国“黄色”词义变异考析》”, in 《历史研究》, issue 6, pages 83–89


  • Jacques, Guillaume (向柏霖) (2015). Dictionnaire Japhug-chinois-français 《嘉绒—汉—法词典》. Version 1.0. Paris: Project HimalCo.
  • Jacques, Guillaume (2004). Phonologie et Morphologie du Japhug (rGyalrong). Ph.D. Dissertation. Paris VIII University.
  • Jiang, Lansheng (江藍生) (1995), “说“麽”与“们”同源”, in 《中國語文》 [Studies of the Chinese Language], issue 3, pages 180–190
  • Johnson, Rubellite K., and Bryce G. Decker (1980), “Implications of the Distribution of Names for Cotton (Gossypium Spp.) in the Indo-Pacific.”, in Asian Perspectives, volume 23, issue 2, pages 249–307


  • Karlgren, Bernhard (1933), “Word Families in Chinese”, in Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, issue 5, pages 9–120
  • Karlgren, Bernhard (1957) Grammata serica recensa, Stockholm
  • Klöter, Henning (2005) Written Taiwanese, Harrassowitz Verlag
  • Kong, Zhongnan (孔仲南) (1933). 廣東俗語考. Republished by Shanghai Literature and Art Publishing House, 1992.
  • Kwok, Bit-Chee (郭必之); Chin, Andy (錢志安); Tsou, Benjamin K. (鄒嘉彥) (2008), “粤语“阳入对转“词的底层来源 [The substrata of nasal and stop ending alternations in Yue dialect]”, in 《民族语文》, issue 4, pages 51–60


  • LaPolla, Randy J. (1994), “Variable finals in Proto-Sino-Tibetan”, in Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology, volume 65, issue 1, pages 131–173
  • Laufer, Berthold (1914) Chinese clay figures, part I: Prolegomena on the history of defensive armor, Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History
  • Laufer, Berthold (1919) Sino-Iranica: Chinese Contributions to the History of Civilization in Ancient Iran, With Special Reference to the History of Cultivated Plants and Products[1], Field Museum of Natural History
  • Laufer, Berthold (1967). Sino-Iranica. Volume 201 of Publication: Field Museum of Natural History. Рипол Классик. →ISBN.
  • Li, Jinfang (李錦芳) (1990), “粤语中的壮侗语族语言底层初析”, in Journal of Minzu University of China (Philosophy and Social Sciences Edition, issue 6, pages 71–76
  • Li, Jinfang (李錦芳) (2002) 《侗台语言与文化》 [Tai-Kadai Languages and Cultures], Publishing House of Minority Nationalities
  • Li, Lan (李藍) (2013). 再論“們”的來源. In: Guangshun Cao, Hilary Chappell, Redouane Djamouri and Thekla Wiebusch (editors), Breaking Down the Barriers: Interdisciplinary Studies in Chinese Linguistics and Beyond. Taipei: Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica.
  • Li, Ru-long (李如龍) (1997) 《福建方言》, Fuzhou: Fujian People's Publishing House
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  • Li, Ru-long (李如龍) (2005), “关于东南方言的 “底层” 研究 [On the Substratum in Southeast Chinese Dialects]”, in 《民族语文》, issue 5, pages 1–15
  • Li, Ru-long (李如龍) (2017), “说“闽” [On ‘MIN’]”, in Journal of Xiamen University (Arts & Social Sciences), issue 6, pages 104–110
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  • Li, Y.-H. Audrey (李豔惠); Shi, Yuzhi (石毓智) (2000), “汉语量词系统的建立与复数标记“们”的发展”, in Contemporary Linguistics, issue 1, pages 27–36
  • Lian, Chun-zhao (練春招) (2001), “客家方言与南方少数民族语言共同词语考略 [The Textual Research of Common Words in Hakka Dialect and Minority Languages in South China]”, in Journal of Jiaying University (Philosophy & Social Sciences), volume 19, issue 2, pages 107–113
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  • Ōta, Itsuku (太田斎) (2013). 《北方方言“蚯蚓”的对应词》. In: Cao, Zhiyun (ed.), 《汉语方言的地理语言学研究》. Beijing: Shangwu Yinshuguan.


  • Pan, Wuyun (潘悟雲); Chen, Zhongmin (陳忠敏) (1995), “釋儂 [On “Nong”]”, in Journal of Chinese Linguistics, volume 23, issue 2, pages 129–147
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  • Pan, Wuyun (潘悟雲) (2016), “再论方言考本字“觅轨法”——以现代韵母为 u 的滞后层为例”, in Linguistic Research, issue 4, pages 9–11
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Routinely consulted dictionaries[edit]

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  • Luo, Zhufeng (羅竹風), chief ed. (1986–1993). Hanyu Da Cidian (漢語大詞典) [Great Dictionary of Chinese Words]. 13 vols. Shanghai: Cishu Chubanshe. →ISBN. CD-ROM ed. →ISBN.
  • Ministry of Education, R.O.C. (2015). Chongbian Guoyu Cidian Xiudingben (重編國語辭典修訂本) [Revised Mandarin Chinese Dictionary]. Available online at http://dict.revised.moe.edu.tw/cbdic/.