Wiktionary:Frequency lists/Welsh

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These frequency lists are based on work conducted by Ellis, N. C., O'Dochartaigh, C., Hicks, W., Morgan, M., & Laporte, N. (2001). The list comprises of an analysis of 1,079,032 words of written, everyday Welsh. It is based on 500 samples of approximately 2000 words each, selected from a representative range of text types to illustrate modern (mainly post 1970) Welsh writing.

The sample included materials from the fields of novels and short stories, religious writing, children's literature (both factual and fiction), non-fiction materials in the fields of education, science, business, leisure activities, etc., public lectures, newspapers and magazines, both national and local, reminiscences, academic writing, and general administrative materials (letters, reports, minutes of meetings).

The resultant corpus was analysed to produce frequency counts of words both in their raw form and as counts of lemmas where each token is demutated and tagged to its root. This analysis also derives basic information concerning the frequencies of different word classes, inflections, mutations, and other grammatical features.[1]

First 100 most common words[edit]

Amlder/Frequency Y gair Cymraeg/Welsh word Cyfieithiad Saesneg/English translation
55588 yn in (though more often seen as a particle before a verb, noun, or adjective, the predicative "yn")
45945 y the
33327 i to; me
33231 a and
32573 'r the
26927 o from; of
15888 ar on
14990 ei his/her
14845 'n a particle used before a verb, noun, or adjective; see "yn"
14523 yr the
11785 ac and
9922 oedd was; were
9338 bod to be
9056 mae there is; there are
7751 am at; for; of
7093 wedi past; post (used before a verb to create the perfect tense)
6118 ond but
5568 un one
5415 'i his/her (attached to the end of another word that ends in a Welsh vowel)
5294 eu their
4991 gan by
4988 fel like; such as
4578 mewn in a
4149 â with
4142 roedd there was; there were
3821 cael to get
3754 yw is (a conjugated form of "bod", to be)
3546 wrth near; by
3545 ni us; we
3463 hyn this
3023 na than
2870 ôl post; behind
2721 hynny then; these
2646 fe he; him
2613 er though
2594 neu or
2585 nid no; not (used at the start of a sentence when forming the negative is any tense)
2542 at at
2511 sy that is; which is
2417 'w his/her (attached to the end of another word that ends in a Welsh vowel)
2401 hi her; she
2360 dim not; nothing; any
2278 mynd to go
2240 byddai he/she/it would be
2160 gyda with
2137 yng in (nasally mutated)
2110 iawn very; OK
2066 pob every
2065 lle place
2027 pan when (used in the middle of a sentence; compare with "pryd", the interrogative "when")
2004 bu a form of "bod", to be
1973 gwaith work
1972 mawr big
1971 rhai some
1958 ym in (nasally mutated)
1904 fy my
1881 bydd he/she/it will be
1871 gwneud to do
1864 Cymru Wales
1852 hyd length; duration; time; until
1838 hefyd also; too; as well
1827 mi me; I
1809 mai that is; which is (used with "yw/ydy" when forming an emphatic sentence); the month of May
1786 sydd that is; which is
1662 gweld to see
1637 trwy through
1608 Cymraeg Welsh (language)
1606 iddo to him; for him
1577 arall another; other
1576 yna that; then
1552 'u their (attached to the end of another word that ends in a Welsh vowel)
1541 mwy more
1512 nhw they; them
1510 ein our
1499 hwn this (masculine)
1486 hen old
1484 mor as; so
1468 yma here
1465 cyn before
1465 rhaid must
1464 nad no; not (used in the middle of a sentence when forming the negative is any tense)
1440 pobl people
1423 ef he; him
1399 dau two
1399 rhan part
1396 llawer lots; a lot; much
1375 chi you (formal)
1352 os if
1336 rhoi to give; to put
1290 daeth he/she/it came
1286 hun self
1283 cyntaf first
1283 newydd new; just (having done something)
1273 felly so; therefore
1262 tros over
1231 rhyw some
1222 pen head
1213 meddai he/she/it said
1200 byd world
1192 yno there

Second 100 most common words[edit]

Amlder/Frequency Y gair Cymraeg/Welsh word Cyfieithiad Saesneg/English translation
1183 dod to come
1175 ag with (used before a Welsh vowel; â used before a Welsh consonant and causes a soft mutation)
1175 heb without
1158 erbyn by
1140 beth what; thing
1080 iaith language
1078 cyfer usually seen in its mutated for "ar gyfer", meaning "for"
1075 ddim nothing; no
1047 plant children
1045 dweud to say
1045 rhwng between
1039 tro turn; time
1034 byw to live
1022 eraill others
1013 peth some; thing
1009 da good
1009 math type; kind
1006 oes yes, there is; is there?
988 bach little; small
987 ffordd way; road
979 ysgol school; ladder
969 meddwl to think
956 dyn man
945 oed age
935 hwnnw that (masculine)
928 amser time
927 digon enough
919 allan out
913 eto yet; again
904 hon this (feminine)
896 dan under (usually seen with "o", "o dan")
893 dechrau to start; begin
875 unrhyw any
870 Jones a popular surname in Wales!
870 mwyaf most
868 pryd when (used at the start of a sentence; compare with "pan", the non-interrogative "when" used in a middle of a sentence)
861 gwlad county; Wales
855 gwir true; truth
837 dyna that is; there is
835 arbennig special
805 dwy two (feminine)
803 dyma this is
796 cyfnod period (of time)
796 unig only
783 bywyd life
771 hanes history
771 holl all
771 ti you; thee
765 mwyn usually seen as "er mwyn", meaning "for the sake of; in order that"
764 oddi from her/it
762 honno that (feminine)
742 blaen top; tip
735 ystod range
729 aeth he/she/it went
725 pawb everyone
724 dydd day
720 addysg education
718 eich your (formal, plural)
718 iddi to her; to it
717 e he; it
715 oherwydd because
710 blwyddyn year
691 tad father
679 cafodd he/she/it got
675 gwahanol different
669 enw name; noun
667 tu side, edge; one of two sides; usually seen with other words, such as "tu allan" meaning "out" and "tu ôl" meaning "behind"
665 dal still; continuing to be
664 sef namely
657 cadw to keep
655 codi to raise; to lift
647 edrych o look
646 modd means; mode; a way of doing something
644 angen need
643 mam mother
640 llaw hand
639 dy your (informal, singular)
633 nifer number (of)
631 doedd he/she/it was not
630 cymdeithas society
630 John a popular forname in Wales!
629 neb nobody, no one
627 defnyddio to use
627 tebyg similar
624 diwedd end
621 ychydig a little
619 blynyddoedd years
616 canrif century
616 wedyn then; afterwards
614 gallai he/she/it could
611 cwrs course
611 pethau things
607 canol middle
604 dysgu to learn (used also as "to teach")
603 iddynt to them
602 ymlaen forwards; onwards
599 cyngor council; councel; advice
597 prif main; head; chief
596 cynnwys content
594 eglwys church

Third 100 most common words[edit]

Amlder/Frequency Y gair Cymraeg/Welsh word Cyfieithiad Saesneg/English translation
590 cilydd reciprocal, usually seen in the form of "gyda'i gilydd", meaning "together"
583 Williams a popular surname in Wales!
581 troi to turn
579 r the, added on to a Welsh vowel at the end of a word
571 house
570 sut how
560 cyd co-; joint
560 hanner half
558 nos night
556 man place
550 ceir cars; there is/are
547 ceisio try
543 arno on him/it
541 cyrraedd to arrived
538 drwy through
537 gall he/she/it can
536 gellir it can (be done)
534 unwaith once
533 ail second
533 cwbl total; whole
533 lawr down
530 nag not (used in the middle of a sentence, compare with "nid")
529 gwybod to know (a fact)
526 derbyn to accept
523 nes until
523 pa which (interrogative)
518 awr hour
515 tua about; around about (time)
506 mis month
505 blynedd year (feminine)
505 Mr contraction of "Mister"
504 gweithio to work
499 gallu be able to
499 marw to die
497 gair word
496 bynnag ever, used in the sense of "beth bynnag", meaning "whatever" or "pryd bynnag", meaning "whenever"
494 cyfarfod meeting
494 hir long
492 ardal area
485 heddiw today
483 llawn full
482 cefn back; ridge
479 amlwg apparent; distinct; obvious
478 duw god
475 rhywbeth something
474 gwybodaeth information
474 teulu family
473 fo he; him (compare with 'fe', 'e', 'ef', and 'o')
472 llyfr book
470 ohonynt of them
469 cenedlaethol national
467 golwg sight
462 hwy they; them (compare with "nhw")
462 tri three
461 pwyllgor committee
459 byth ever; never
459 gwell better
458 bore morning
458 digwydd to happen
456 lleol local
454 gadael to leave; depart
450 gŵr husband
449 dangos to show
447 ochr side
446 wyneb face
445 siarad to talk; speak
443 cyfle opportunity; chance
440 datblygu to develop
436 efallai perhaps; maybe
436 fewn usually seen with 'o', "o fewn", meaning 'inside, within'
436 gwraig wife
435 cofio to remember
435 darllen to read
435 tir land
431 rhag lest; pre-, anti-, fore; usually seen as "rhag ofn", meaning "in case, just in case"
430 newid to change
429 cyfan whole
427 cymryd to take
425 aelodau members
425 bob every
425 ganddo he has; by him
425 maes field; pitch; ground
425 Saesneg English (language)
424 achos because (see also "oherwydd")
422 'm contraction of "fy", meaning my; added to vowels at the end of a word, though usually single letters
422 gorau best
422 pwysig important
421 clywed to hear
421 pe if (conditional; compare with "os")
420 adroddiad report
420 yntau he; him
419 Thomas a popular surname in Wales!
418 gofyn to ask
414 diwrnod day (compare with "dydd")
412 Mrs Mrs
412 stori story
412 ysgolion schools; ladders
410 aros to wait; stay
410 cymaint as much as; so many
406 drws door

Fourth 100 most common words[edit]

Amlder/Frequency Y gair Cymraeg/Welsh word Cyfieithiad Saesneg/English translation
406 sylw to notice
405 dilyn to follow
404 dosbarth class
404 symud to move
401 plaid (political) party
398 erioed ever
398 ifanc young
397 tai houses
396 bellach farther; further
394 rhyfel war
393 galw to call
392 ynglŷn in connection with
390 bron breast; almost
389 gwnaeth (he/she/it) did; made
388 fi me
388 geiriau words
387 ers since (time)
387 tra whilst
387 tynnu to pull
385 sir county
384 dynion men
382 coleg college
382 Cymry Welsh (people)
380 merch girl; daughter
379 megis as
378 cwmpas surroundings
377 parod ready; willing; prepared
377 rhywun someone ; somebody
375 llyfrau books
372 efo with
371 Cymreig Welsh (things / style)
371 môr sea
368 cynnig to offer
367 cynnal to support; to hold (an event)
367 tipyn a little bit
366 afon river
363 gosod to place; to lay
363 ydi alternative spelling of ydy = yes he/she/it is; ydy? =is he/she/it?
362 cwmni company
361 arian silver; money
357 sôn to mention
356 ateb answer
355 enghraifft example
352 bwyd food
351 di
351 sicrhau to ensure
350 dyddiau days
350 trafod to handle
349 canu to sing
347 adran department
347 tuag towards
346 hunain -selves
345 capel chapel
345 sefyllfa situation
344 Davies
343 chwarae play
342 cartref home
341 c
341 cynllun plan
339 aml often
339 daw (I/he/she/it) will come
339 union direct
338 nesaf next
337 creu to create
337 de southern; right (side / direction)
337 llai less
335 tref town
335 wythnos week
334 dywedodd (he/she) said
334 gwyn white
334 Lloegr England
334 noson evening
333 Lewis
333 Owen
333 sawl many; sawl? = how many?
331 llygaid eyes
331 tair three (f)
329 profiad experience
328 natur nature
326 deg ten; mutated form of teg = fair
325 cafwyd was obtained
325 disgwyl to wait
324 corff body
324 prin scarce; rare
321 merched girls; daughters
321 ogystal yn ogystal = as well as; in addition to
318 fyny up
317 'ch contraction of eich = your
317 cyffredinol common
317 t
316 ambell a few
316 does contraction of "nid oes" = there isn't/aren't
315 arfer to be used/accustomed to
315 diweddar lately
315 trefn arrangement; order; system
314 Roberts
313 barn opinion; judgement
313 cynnar early
312 arni on her
311 ai Is it...? (placed before an assertion to turn it into a question); ai...ai... = either...or...

Fifth 100 most common words[edit]

Amlder/Frequency Y gair Cymraeg/Welsh word Cyfieithiad Saesneg/English translation
310 pam contraction of "paham" = why
308 mab son
308 peidio to cease
308 rhy too (extreme)
307 dewis choice; to choose
305 gwasanaeth service
303 llall other
302 cerdded to walk
302 gwerth worth; value
301 swyddfa office
300 anodd difficult
299 dylid should
298 torri to break; to cut
297 cymorth assistance; aid
297 deall to understand
297 hytrach yn hytrach = rather than
297 olaf last / remaining
296 colli to lose
296 credu to believe
296 ystyried to consider
294 athrawon teachers
293 adeg era / epoch
293 disgyblion disciples; pupils
293 n
291 cyffredin common
290 coed trees
289 llywodraeth government
288 athro teacher
287 bai blame
287 gwely bed
287 ymhlith among
285 cymdeithasol social
285 dechreuodd (he/she/it) began
285 gellid could be
285 tan under
283 cenedl nation
283 uchel high
282 cynllunio to plan
282 William
281 b
281 cychwyn to start
278 swyddog official (person)
277 diwethaf last one
275 gydag with
275 ymateb response
273 bwrdd board / table
273 cyflwyno to introduce
272 cyfeiriad address
272 oeddwn (I) was; Yes I was
272 plentyn child
272 pwy who
271 car car
271 cyhoeddi announce / publicise
271 eisteddfod eisteddfod (music, poetry and art contest)
271 imi that I
271 wel Well! (colloquialism)
270 lleiaf smallest
270 teimlo to feel
269 du black
268 amdano about him/it
268 heibio past (direction)
268 popeth everything
267 dylai should
267 haf summer
267 llais voice
267 llun picture; photo
267 Sul dydd Sul = Sunday
266 ati to her; ag ati = and so on
266 sicr secure
266 taith voyage
263 ynddo in it
262 coch red
262 diddordeb interest
262 diolch thanks / thank you
262 eisoes already
261 inni for us
261 papur paper
261 rhaglen programme
261 rhain these
261 ystafell room (in a building)
260 bwyta to eat
260 ofn fear
258 sefyll to stand
257 gweithredu to go into action; to do a deed
257 perthynas relative
256 draw over(there)
255 j Purely, J doesn't exist in the Welsh language, but is often used in borrowed words.
253 dŵr water
252 agos nearby
252 nac no
251 Evans
250 go rather / somewhat
250 Prydain Britain
249 gogledd north
249 posibl possible
249 traed feet
248 daear earth
248 the
247 talu to pay
246 buasai (he/she/it) would be

100 most common verbs[edit]

Note that this frequency list is made up of verbs as they appear in the original research, and not as pure verbnouns.

Amlder/Frequency Y gair Cymraeg/Welsh word Cyfieithiad Saesneg/English translation
9922 oedd he/she/it was; was he/she/it
9338 bod to be
9056 mae there is, there are
4142 roedd he/she/it was
3821 cael to get, receive
3754 yw is (compare with ydy, ydi)
2511 sy that is, which is
2278 mynd to go
2240 byddai he/she/it would be
2004 bu was (depending on the next verb; bu rhaid imi - I had to)
1881 bydd he/she/it will be
1871 gwneud to do, make
1786 sydd that is, which is
1662 gweld to see
1465 rhaid must
1336 rhoi to give, put
1290 daeth he/she/it came
1213 meddai he/she/it said
1183 dod to come
1045 dweud to say
1034 byw to live
969 meddwl to think, to believe
893 dechrau to start, to begin
729 aeth he/she/it went
679 cafodd he/she/it got
657 cadw to keep, preserve
655 codi to get up, raise
647 edrych to look
644 angen need
631 doedd he/she/it was not
627 defnyddio to use
614 gallai he/she/it could
604 dysgu to learn, teach
596 cynnwys to include
581 troi to turn
547 ceisio to try
541 cyrraedd to arrive, get to
537 gall he/she/it can
536 gellir it could
529 gwybod to know (a fact)
526 derbyn to accept
504 gweithio to work
499 gallu be able to
499 marw to die
458 digwydd to happen
454 gadael to leave, depart
449 dangos to show
445 siarad to speak, talk
440 datblygu to develop
435 cofio to remember
435 darllen to read
430 newid to change
427 cymryd to take
421 clywed to hear
418 gofyn to ask
410 aros to wait, remain
405 dilyn to follow
404 symud to move
393 galw to call
389 gwnaeth he/she/it did
387 tynnu to pull
368 cynnig to offer
367 cynnal to hold, keep, support, maintain
363 gosod to let, lay, put down
357 sôn to mention
356 ateb to answer
351 sicrhau to ensure
350 trafod to discuss
349 canu to sing
343 chwarae to play
337 creu to create
334 dywedodd he/she/it said (compare with "meddai")
325 cafwyd he/she/it got
325 disgwyl to expect
308 peidio to cease, stop
307 dewis to choose
302 cerdded to walk
299 dylid it should
298 torri to break
297 deall to understand
296 colli to lose, miss
296 credu to believe
296 ystyried to consider
285 dechreuodd he/she/it started, began
285 gellid it could
282 cynllunio to plan
281 cychwyn to start
275 ymateb to respond
273 cyflwyno to introduce
272 oeddwn was I; I was
271 cyhoeddi to announce
270 teimlo to feel
267 dylai he/she/it should
260 bwyta to eat
258 sefyll to stand
257 gweithredu to implement
246 buasai he/she/it would be
246 chwilio to search
246 ennill to win
239 sefydlu to establish

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ellis, N. C., O'Dochartaigh, C., Hicks, W., Morgan, M., & Laporte, N. (2001). Cronfa Electroneg o Gymraeg (CEG): A 1 million word lexical database and frequency count for Welsh. [On-line] Available: www.bangor.ac.uk/canolfanbedwyr/ceg.php.en