v s l m

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Latin[edit]

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Phrase[edit]

V·S·L·M

  1. Initialism of vōtum solvit libēns meritō (has fulfilled his vow freely as merited).

Usage notes[edit]

This phrase is commonly found on votive offerings, signifying the offerer has given this previously promised offering out of his free will because the deity has granted his request. Since at the time the distinction between upper and lower case as we know it didn't exist yet and inscriptions used only capitals, and because usually interpoints were used where we nowadays use dots and spaces or nothing, it usually appears as: v·s·l·m

Quotations[edit]

  • 1–69 near Sint-Michielsgestel, RMO, RTN:
    Magvsa/noHercvl / sacrvFlavs / Vihirmatisfil / svmmvsmagistra / civitatisBatavor / v·s·l·m·
    To Magusanus Hercules dedicated; Flavus, son of Vihirmas, highest magistrate of the civitas of the Batavi, has fulfilled his vow freely as merited.
  • 1–300 near Haelen, RMO, GL 413:
    Marti / Halamardo / sacrvm / T·Domit·Vindex / ↄ·Leg· XX ·V·V / v · s · l · m
    To Mars Halamarđus dedicated; Titus Domitius Vindex, centurion of Legion XX Valeria Victrix, has fulfilled his vow freely as merited.
  • 1–300 near Vechten, RMO, VF 81:
    deae / Viradecdi / cives Tvngri / et navtae / qvi Fectione / consistvnt / v·s·l·m
    To the goddess Viradecdis the Tongeren citizens and sailors who stay at Vechten have fulfilled their vow freely as merited.
  • 164–235 near Vechten, RMO, VF 80:
    Matribvs / Noric i s / Annevs / Maximvs / mil·Leg·I·M / v·s·l·m·
    To the mother goddesses of Noricum Anneus Maximus, soldier in Legion I Minervia has fulfilled his vow freely as merited.
  • 150–250 near Colijnsplaat, RMO, i 2017/7.2:
    d e a e / Nechaleniae / L·Patrvitivs / Satvrninvs / v · s · l · m
    To the goddess Nehalennia Lucius Patruitius Saturninus has fulfilled his vow freely as merited.
    Note: this object with the CH-spelling as well as other objects with I𐌝 or 𐌝 such as i 1970/12.33 suggest the H in Nehalennia was pronounced more like a [x] sound.
  • 223 near Colijnsplaat, RMO, i 1970/12.46 + i 1974/9.84a:
    in·h·D·D ^deae / Nehalenniae·C·Ivl / Aprilis·veteranvs·exbf / cos·pro·se·et·svis·v·s·l·m / Maximo·et·Aeliano·cos
    In honour of the Divine House; to the goddess Nehalennia Gaius Iulius Aprilis, veteran, out of consular benefice for himself and his family has fulfilled his vow freely as merited during the consulate of Maximus and Aelianus.
    Note: the Divine House meant the imperial family; we're guessing Aprilis rather than Virilis because of an inscription found in Cologne, CIL XIII 8204, ‘I · O · M / et·genio / loci·C / Iul·Aprilis / bfcos·pro / se·et·svis’.
  • 150–250 near Colijnsplaat, RMO, i 1970/12.1:
    deae / Nehaleniae / M·Exgingivs / Agricola / Cives·Trever / negotiator / salarivs / C·C·A·A·v·s·l·m
    To the goddess Nehalennia Marcus Exgingius Agricola, citizen of the Treveri, merchant in salt at Cologne, has fulfilled his vow freely as merited.
    Note: the Treveri were a Belgic tribe living around Trier.
  • 150–250 near Colijnsplaat, RMO, i 1974/9.78:
    deae / Nehalaen/niae Freio / Palvsonis / posvitaram / desvovslm
    To the goddess Nehalennia Freio Palusonis has placed this altar at his own expense; he has fulfilled his vow freely as merited.
  • 150–250 near Colijnsplaat, RMO, i 1970/12.45:
    deae·Nehalenniae / Placidvs·Vidvci·fil / cives·Veliocassinivs / negotiat·Britann / v · s · l · m
    To the goddess Nehalennia Placidus, son of Viducius, citizen of the Veliocasses, merchant on Britain, has fulfilled his vow freely as merited.
    Note: the Veliocasses were a Belgic or Gallic tribe living around Rouen.
  • 150–250 near Colijnsplaat, RMO, i 1971/11.61:
    Nehalenniae / Bosiconivs / Qvartvs / actor·navis / Flori·Severi / v · s · l · m
    To Nehalennia Bosiconius Quartus, ship administrator of Florus Severus, has fulfilled his vow freely as merited.
    Note: an actor was a slave charged with oversight and administration, able to act (even financially) on behalf of his owner in the performance of his duties.
  • 150–250 near Colijnsplaat, RMO, i 1970/12.13:
    deae·Nehalenniæ / Vegisonivs·Mar/tinvs · cives / Secvanvs·navta / v · s · l · m
    To the goddess Nehalennia Vegisonius Martinus, citizen of the Sequani, sailor, has fulfilled his vow freely as merited.
    Note: the Sequani were a Gallic tribe living in present-day Franche-Comté.
  • 150–250 near Colijnsplaat, RMO, i 1970/12.5:
    Nehalenniae·LSecvndivs / Similis·et·T·Carinivs / Gratvs·negotiatores / allecari·v·s·l·m
    To Nehalennia Lucius Secundius Similis and Titus Carinius Gratus, merchants in hallec, have fulfilled their vow freely as merited.
  • 150–250 near Colijnsplaat, RMO, i 1970/12.50 + i 1974/9.101:
    deae / Nehalen/niae·pro / navibvs / Merca/torivs / Amabilis / v·s·l·m
    To the goddess Nehalennia for the ships Mercatorius Amabilis has fulfilled his vow freely as merited.
  • 150–250 near Colijnsplaat, RMO, i 1971/11.53 as displayed on a 1977 stamp, RMO, Z 2018/4.2:
    deae·Nehalenniae / Sextvs·Severini/vs·Severvs·v·s·l·m
    To the goddess Nehalennia Sextus Severinius Severus has fulfilled his vow freely as merited.
  • 150–300 near Alem, RMO, e 1960/8.2:
    deæExomnæ / Avnivs / Vitalis / v·s·l·m
    To the goddess Exomna Aunius Vitalis has fulfilled his vow freely as merited.
  • 150–300 near Alem, RMO, e 1960/8.1:
    d e o / Mercvrio / ex·ivssv / ipsivs·T·Fl / Virilis / v · s · l · m
    To the god Mercurius on his order Titus Flavius Virilis has fulfilled his vow freely as merited.
  • 150–300 in Germany, RMO, GL 417:
    d e o / Mercvrio / L·Priminivs / Provincia/lis·et·Agisil/ia·Restitvta / v·s·l·m
    To the god Mercury Lucius Priminius Provincialis and Agisilia Restituta have fulfilled their vow freely as merited.