Appendix:Old English strong declension

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  • If the first syllable in a two-syllable strong noun is long, the vowel of the second syllable is dropped when an ending is added. Eg hēafod, plural hēafdu; engel, plural englas.
  • If an ending beginning with an a, o, or u is added, æ or ea in a short syllable become a. Eg dæg, plural dagas; geat, plural gatu.
  • If a strong noun ends in a sonorant followed by h, the h is dropped and preceding vowel is lengthened when a suffix is added. E.g., wealh, plural wēalas.

Examples[edit]

Masculine[edit]

Citation form: stān m

singular plural
nominative
accusative
stān stān·as
genitive stān·es stān·a
dative stān·e stān·um

Short Feminine[edit]

Citation form: giefu f

singular plural
nominative gief·u gief·a or gief·e
accusative gief·e gief·a or gief·e
genitive gief·e gief·a
dative gief·e gief·um

Long Feminine[edit]

Citation form: sorg f

singular plural
nominative sorg sorg·a or sorg·e
accusative sorg·e sorg·a or sorg·e
genitive sorg·e sorg·a
dative sorg·e sorg·um

Short Neuter[edit]

Citation form: scip n

singular plural
nominative
accusative
scip scip·u
genitive scip·es scip·a
dative scip·e scip·um

Long Neuter[edit]

Citation form: þing n

singular plural
nominative
accusative
þing þing
genitive þing·es þing·a
dative þing·e þing·um

See also[edit]