Appendix:Proto-Sino-Tibetan/d/s-kəw

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This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Sino-Tibetan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *d-kəw (Chou, 1972); *dkʷjəɣʷ (Coblin, 1986)
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *d/s-kəw (Matisoff, STEDT; Mortensen, 2012); *d-kuw (Benedict, 1972; Chou, 1972; LaPolla, 1987; Weidert, 1987)

Numeral[edit]

  1. nine

Descendants[edit]

  • Old Chinese: /*kuʔ/ (B-S; ZS)
    • Middle Chinese: /kɨuX/

         Japanese:   (きゅう, kyū)
            Korean:   (gu) (, gu)
            Vietnamese:  cửu

      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing: (jiǔ, /t͡ɕi̯oʊ̯²¹⁴/)
      • Cantonese
        • Guangzhou: /kɐu³⁵/
      • Wu
        • Shanghai: /t͡ɕiɜ³⁴/
    • Min
      • Min Nan
        • Taiwan: /kau⁵¹/ (colloquial), /kiu⁵¹/ (literary)
  • Himalayish
    • Tibeto-Kanauri
      • Bodic
        • Tibetan
          • Written Tibetan: དགུ (dgu, nine)
  • Jingpho-Asakian
    • Jingpho
      • Jingpho [Kachin]: jahku (nine)
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi
    • Lolo-Burmese
      • Burmish
      • Loloish
        • Northern Loloish
          • Yi (Liangshan): (ggu, nine)
  • Karenic:
    /*khwiᴬ/ (Luangthongkum, 2013)