Appendix:Proto-Sino-Tibetan/m/s-glak ~ m-glaŋ

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This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Sino-Tibetan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *gljang (Coblin, 1986)
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *m/s-glak ⪤ *m-glaŋ (Matisoff, STEDT); *graŋ (Benedict, 1972); *grɑŋ (Chou, 1972); *graŋ ⪤ glaŋ ⪤ m/ʔ-glak (Matisoff, 2003)

→ Also, compare the following word family in Chinese, of unknown origin:

B-S ZS Def.
/*p.rəŋ/ > (dial.) /*pr-/ /*p-ŋrɯŋ/ "ice"
/*ŋ(r)əŋ/ < uvular? /*ŋrɯŋ/ "to freeze, to form; ice"
/*p.rəŋ/ /*rɯŋ/ "ice"

Definitions[edit]

  1. cold
  2. freeze

Descendants[edit]

  • Old Chinese: /*raŋ/ (root)
    /*C.raŋ, *C.raŋ-s/ (B-S); /*g·raŋ, *g·raŋ-s/ (ZS) ("cold; light, weak")
    (vocalic variant) /*(g-)raːŋʔ, *reːŋ, *reːŋʔ/ (ZS) ("cold")
    (s-noun) /*sraŋ/ (B-S; ZS) ("hoarfrost")
    • Middle Chinese: /lɨɐŋ, lɨɐŋH/, /lɣæŋX, leŋ, leŋX/, /ʃɨɐŋ/

         Vietnamese:  lạnh ("cold")
            Vietnamese:  sương ("dew")

      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing:
          (liáng, /li̯ɑŋ³⁵/) ("cool")
          (liàng, /li̯ɑŋ⁵¹/) ("to make ... cold, to make ... dry")
          (lěng, /lɤŋ²¹⁴/) ("cold")
          (shuāng, /ʂu̯ɑŋ⁵⁵/) ("frost")
  • Himalayish
    • Tibeto-Kanauri
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi

See also[edit]

  • *kjam (cold, snow, ice)