From Middle English cold, from Old English cald, ċeald (“cold”), from Proto-Germanic *kaldaz, a participle form of *kalaną (“to be cold”), from Proto-Indo-European *gel- (“cold”). Cognate with Scots cald, cauld (“cold”), West Frisian kâld (“cold”), Dutch koud (“cold”), Low German kold, koolt, koold (“cold”), German kalt (“cold”), Danish kold (“cold”), Norwegian Bokmål kald (“cold”), Swedish kall (“cold”).
cold (comparative colder, superlative coldest)
- (of a thing) Having a low temperature.
- A cold wind whistled through the trees.
- (of the weather) Causing the air to be cold.
- The forecast is that it will be very cold today.
- (of a person or animal) Feeling the sensation of coldness, especially to the point of discomfort.
- She was so cold she was shivering.
- Unfriendly, emotionally distant or unfeeling.
- She shot me a cold glance before turning her back.
- We told him that his father had died. He answered, “Okay.” Man, that's cold!
- 1960, P. G. Wodehouse, Jeeves in the Offing, chapter VII:
- “Suppose someone pops in?” “Don't be silly. Mrs Cream is working on her book. Phyllis is in her room, typing Upjohn's speech. Wilbert's gone for a walk. Upjohn isn't here. The only character who could pop in would be the Brinkley Court ghost. If it does, give it a cold look and walk through it. That'll teach it not to come butting in where it isn't wanted, ha ha.”
- Dispassionate, not prejudiced or partisan, impartial.
- Let's look at this tomorrow with a cold head.
- He's a nice guy, but the cold facts say we should fire him.
- The cold truth is that states rarely undertake military action unless their national interests are at stake.
- Completely unprepared; without introduction.
- He was assigned cold calls for the first three months.
- Unconscious or deeply asleep; deprived of the metaphorical heat associated with life or consciousness.
- I knocked him out cold.
- After one more beer he passed out cold.
- (usually with "have" or "know" transitively) Perfectly, exactly, completely; by heart.
- Practice your music scales until you know them cold.
- Try both these maneuvers until you have them cold and can do them in the dark without thinking.
- Rehearse your lines until you have them down cold.
- Keep that list in front of you, or memorize it cold.
- (usually with "have" transitively) Cornered, done for.
- With that receipt, we have them cold for fraud.
- Criminal interrogation. Initially they will dream up explanations faster than you could ever do so, but when they become fatigued, often they will acknowledge that you have them cold.
- 1960, P. G. Wodehouse, Jeeves in the Offing, chapter XIX:
- “Either Upjohn agrees to drop that libel suit or he doesn't get these notes, as he calls them, and without them he won't be able to utter a word. He'll have to come across with the price of the papers. Won't he, Jeeves?” “He would appear to have no alternative, miss.” “Unless he wants to get up on that platform and stand there opening and shutting his mouth like a goldfish. We've got him cold.”
- (of a thing, having a low temperature): chilled, chilly, freezing, frigid, glacial, icy, cool
- (of the weather): (UK, slang) brass monkeys, nippy, parky, taters
- (of a person or animal):
- (unfriendly): aloof, distant, hostile, standoffish, unfriendly, unwelcoming
- (unprepared): unprepared, unready
- See also Wikisaurus:cold
- (having a low temperature): baking, boiling, heated, hot, scorching, searing, torrid, warm
- (of the weather): hot (See the corresponding synonyms of hot.)
- (of a person or animal): hot (See the corresponding synonyms of hot.)
- (unfriendly): amiable, friendly, welcoming
- (unprepared): prepared, primed, ready
Terms derived from the adjective cold
having a low temperature
- Afrikaans: koud (af)
- Ainu: ヤㇺ (yam)
- Albanian: ftohtë (sq)
- Amharic: please add this translation if you can
- Arabic: بارد (ar) (baarid)
- Armenian: սառը (hy) (saṙë)
- Aromanian: aratse (rup)
- Asturian: fríu (ast)
- Azeri: please add this translation if you can
- Bashkir: please add this translation if you can
- Basque: hotz (eu)
- Bavarian: koid
- Belarusian: халодны (be) (xalódny)
- Bengali: শীত (bn) (śīt), শৈত্য (bn), হৈম (bn)
- Breton: yen (br)
- Bulgarian: студен (bg) (studén)
- Burmese: အေး (my) (ei), ချမ်း (my) (chan)
- Catalan: fred (ca)
- Chamicuro: me'sawa
- Cherokee: ᎤᏴᏢ (chr) (uyvtlv)
- Chichewa: please add this translation if you can
- Mandarin: 冷 (cmn) (lěng), 寒 (cmn) (hán)
- Czech: studený (cs), chladný (cs)
- Danish: kold (da)
- Dutch: koud (nl), koude (nl), fris (nl), frisse (nl), koel (nl), koele (nl)
- Dzongkha: please add this translation if you can
- Esperanto: malvarma (eo)
- Estonian: külm (et)
- Faroese: kaldur (fo), kølin (fo)
- Fijian: batabata (fj)
- Finnish: kylmä (fi)
- French: froid (fr) m
- Friulian: frêt
- Galician: frío (gl)
- Georgian: ცივი (ka) (tsivi)
- German: kalt (de)
- Gothic: 𐌺𐌰𐌻𐌳𐍃 (kalds)
- Greek: κρύος (el) (krýos)
- Guaraní: ro'y (gn)
- Gujarati: ઠંડું (gu)
- Haitian Creole: please add this translation if you can
- Hausa: please add this translation if you can
- Hawaiian: anu, anuanu, koʻekoʻe, huʻihuʻi
- Hebrew: קר (he) (qar)
- Hindi: ठंडा (hi) (ṭhaṇḍā)
- Hungarian: hideg (hu)
- Icelandic: kaldur (is)
- Ido: kolda (io)
- Ilocano: ék
- Indonesian: dingin (id)
- Interlingua: frigide (ia)
- Interlingue: please add this translation if you can
- Irish: fuar (ga), dearóil (ga)
- Ishkashimi: سرد (sard)
- Italian: freddo (it), gelato (it), gelido (it)
- Japanese: (to the touch) 冷たい (ja) (つめたい, tsumetai), (weather) 寒い (ja) (さむい, samui)
- Jèrriais: fraid
- Kannada: please add this translation if you can
- Kazakh: please add this translation if you can
- Khmer: រងា (km) (rəŋīə)
- Korean: 찬 (ko) (chan), 차다 (ko) (chada), 춥다 (ko) (chupda) (for suffering)
- Sorani: سارد (ku)
- Kyrgyz: please add this translation if you can
- Lao: ໜາວ (lo)
- Latgalian: solts m, soltons m
- Latin: algidus (la) m, frigidus (la) m, frigeo (la), algeo (la)
- Latvian: auksts (lv), salts (lv)
- Lithuanian: šaltas (lt) m, šalta (lt) f
- Lojban: lenku (jbo)
- Macedonian: студен (mk) (stúden) m, ладен (mk) (láden) m
- Malay: sejuk (ms)
- Malayalam: തണുത്ത (ml) (taṇutta), ഇളം ചാരനിറമുളള (ml) (iḷam cāraniṟamuḷaḷa), കഠിനമായ (ml) (kaṭhinamāya), ബോധമില്ലാത്ത (ml) (bōdhamillātta), ശീതളമായ (ml) (śītaḷamāya), സന്തോഷമില്ലാത്ത (ml) (santōṣamillātta)
- Maori: kōpeke (mi), mātao (mi), hōtoke (mi), māeke (mi), makariri (mi), anu (mi)
- Marathi: थंड (mr) (thanda)
- Mirandese: please add this translation if you can
- Mongolian: please add this translation if you can
- Mòcheno: khòlt
- Navajo: (a place) hakʼaz, (to the touch) sikʼaz
- Nepali: please add this translation if you can
- Norwegian: kald (no)
- Novial: please add this translation if you can
- Occitan: freid (oc)
- Okinawan: (water, food) ふぃじゅるさん (hwizurusaN), (weather) ふぃーさん (hwiisaN)
- Old Church Slavonic: хладьнъ (xladĭnŭ)
- Old English: ċeald (ang)
- Oriya: please add this translation if you can
- Pashto: سوړ (ps) (soṛ)
- Persian: سرد (fa) (sard)
- Pitjantjatjara: wari
- Polish: zimny (pl) m
- Portuguese: frio (pt)
- Punjabi: ਠਂਡਾ (pa) (ṭhaṃḍā)
- Rajasthani: please add this translation if you can
- Rapa Nui: takeo
- Romani: shilalo m
- Romanian: rece (ro)
- Romansch: fraid (rm)
- Russian: холодный (ru) (xolódnyj), (archaic, poetic) студёный (ru) (studjónyj)
- Samoan: maalili (sm)
- Samogitian: šalts m
- Sanskrit: शीत (sa)
- Santali: ᱥᱤᱛᱳᱞ (sitol)
- Scots: cauld
- Scottish Gaelic: fuar (gd)
- Cyrillic: хла́дан (sh) m, сту̀ден (sh) m
- Roman: hládan (sh) m, stùden (sh) m
- Sicilian: friddu (scn)
- Sinhalese: please add this translation if you can
- Slovak: studený (sk), chladný (sk)
- Slovene: mrzel (sl) m
- Lower Sorbian: zymny
- Upper Sorbian: zymny (hsb), chłódny (hsb)
- Spanish: frío (es)
- Swahili: baridi (sw)
- Swedish: kall (sv), frusen (sv)
- Tagalog: lamig (tl)
- Tamil: குளுழு (ta), பணி (ta)
- Telugu: శీతల (te) (śītala), చల్లని (te) (callani)
- Thai: เย็น (th) (yen)
- Tibetan: གྲང་མོ། (bo) (grang mo)
- Tongan: mokomoko (to)
- Tupinambá: ro'y
- Turkish: soğuk (tr)
- Tuvan: соок (sook)
- Ukrainian: холодний (uk) (xolódnyj)
- Urdu: ٹھنڈا (ur) (ṭhaṇḍā)
- Uyghur: please add this translation if you can
- Uzbek: please add this translation if you can
- Vietnamese: lạnh (vi), lạnh lẽo (vi), nguội (vi)
- Volapük: koldik (vo)
- Welsh: oer (cy)
- West Frisian: ferkâldzjen (fy), kjeld (fy), kâld (fy)
- Yiddish: קאַלט (yi) (kalt)
- Zazaki: serd
- The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.
Translations to be checked
cold (plural colds)
- A condition of low temperature.
- Come in, out of the cold.
- (medicine) A common, usually harmless, viral illness, usually with congestion of the nasal passages and sometimes fever.
- I caught a miserable cold and had to stay home for a week.
Terms derived from the noun cold
- Italian: freddo (it) m, gelo (it) m
- Sorani: سارد (ku)
- Latin: algor (la) m, frigor (la) m, frigus (la) n, algus (la) n, algus (la) n, frigus (la) n, frigus (la) n, algus (la) n
- Latvian: aukstums (lv) m, saltums (lv) m
- Lithuanian: vėsa (lt)
- Macedonian: студ (mk) (stud) m
- Norwegian: kulde (no) m
- Polish: zimno (pl) n, mróz (pl) m, ziąb (pl) m
- Portuguese: frio (pt) m
- Romani: shil m
- Romanian: frig (ro)
- Russian: холод (ru) (xólod) m, стужа (ru) (stúža) f
- Scottish Gaelic: fuachd (gd) m
- Cyrillic: хладно̀ћа (sh) f, студен (sh) f, зи́ма (sh) f
- Roman: hladnòća (sh) f, stȕdēn (sh) f, zíma (sh) f
- Slovene: mraz (sl) m, hlad (sl) m
- Spanish: frío (es) m
- Swahili: baridi (sw)
- Swedish: kyla (sv) c, köld (sv) c
- Tagalog: kalamigán (tl)
- Telugu: శీతలం (te)
- Welsh: oerfel (cy)
- Arabic: زكام (ar) (zukām) m, رشح (ar) (rašḥ) m, برد (ar) (bard) m
- Armenian: հարբուխ (hy) (harbux)
- Asturian: catarru (ast) m, constipáu (ast) m, resfriáu (ast) m
- Belarusian: прастуда (be) (prastúda) f
- Bulgarian: простуда (bg) (prostúda) f
- Catalan: constipat (ca) m, refredat (ca) m
- Mandarin: 感冒 (cmn) (gǎnmào)
- Czech: nachlazení (cs) n
- Danish: forkølelse (da) c
- Dutch: verkoudheid (nl) f
- Esperanto: kataro (eo)
- Finnish: nuha (fi), vilustuminen (fi)
- French: rhume (fr) m
- Galician: arrefriado (gl) m, constipado (gl) m, catarro (gl) m, catarreira (gl) f
- Georgian: სურდო (ka) (surdo)
- German: Erkältung (de) f, (Austrian) Verkühlung (de) f
- Greek: κρύωμα (el) (krýoma) n, κρυολόγημα (el) (kryológima) n
- Hindi: सर्दी (hi) (sardī)
- Hungarian: megfázás (hu), meghűlés (hu), nátha (hu)
- Icelandic: kvef (is) n
- Irish: slaghdán (ga) m
- Italian: raffreddore (it) m, influenza (it) f
- Japanese: 風邪 (ja) (かぜ, kaze), 感冒 (ja) (かんぼう, kanbō)
- Korean: 감기 (ko) (gamgi) (感氣 (ko))
- Roman: abashada f
- Latin: influentia (la) f, influxus (la) m, grippa (la) f, febris catarrhalis epidemica (la) f
- Macedonian: настинка (mk) (nástinka) f
- Norwegian: forkjølelse (no) m
- Persian: زکام (fa) (zukâm), سرما (fa) (sarmâ), سرماخوردگی (fa) (sarmâ-xordegi)
- Polish: przeziębienie (pl) n
- Portuguese: resfriado (pt) m, constipação (pt) f, gripe (pt) f, gripa (pt) f
- Romani: trozna f
- Romanian: gripă (ro) f, răceală (ro) f
- Russian: простуда (ru) (prostúda) f
- Scottish Gaelic: cnatan (gd) m
- Cyrillic: прехлада (sh) f, хуњавица (sh) f
- Roman: prȅhlada (sh) f, húnjavica (sh) f
- Slovene: prehlad (sl) m
- Spanish: resfriado (es) m, constipación (es) f, gripe (es) f, gripa (es) f
- Swedish: förkylning (sv) c
- Tagalog: sipón (tl)
- Telugu: జలుబు (te)
- Turkish: please add this translation if you can
- Ukrainian: простуда (uk) (prostúda) f, застуда (uk) (zastúda) f
- Urdu: زکام (ur) (zukām) m
- Vietnamese: cảm (vi)
- Welsh: annwyd (cy)
cold (comparative more cold, superlative most cold)
- While at low temperature.
- The steel was processed cold.
- Without preparation.
- The speaker went in cold and floundered for a topic.
- With finality.
- I knocked him out cold.