estar

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Aragonese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin stāre (stand), present active infinitive of stō (stand)

Verb[edit]

estar

  1. to be

Catalan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin stāre (stand), present active infinitive of stō (stand)

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

estar (first-person singular present estic, past participle estat)

  1. (transitive, copulative) to currently be in a state or have a characteristic (Used to connect a noun to an adjective that describes a temporary state of being.)
    Estic cansada.
    I am tired.
  2. (auxiliary) Used to form the continuous aspect, together with a present participle.
    Ja està dormint.
    He is already sleeping.
  3. (intransitive, +adverbial phrase) To be located (to be in a place)
    La Torre Eiffel està a París.
    The Eiffel Tower is in Paris.

Usage notes[edit]

This is one of two verbs that can be translated as to be, the other being ser/ésser. Ser/ésser indicates something that is inherent and not expected to change, whereas estar describes temporary qualities that apply only at a particular time. Ser/ésser relates to estar as essence relates to state, etymologically as well as semantically.

Conjugation[edit]

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]


Galician[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin stāre (stand), present active infinitive of stō (stand)

Verb[edit]

estar (first-person singular present estou, first-person singular preterite estiven, past participle estado)

  1. to be

Usage notes[edit]

Like Portuguese and Spanish, Galician has two different verbs that are usually translated to English as “to be”. The verb ser relates to essence, origin, or physical description. In contrast, the verb estar relates to current state or position.

Conjugation[edit]

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Ladino[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin stāre (stand), present active infinitive of stō (stand).

Verb[edit]

estar (Latin spelling)

  1. to be, be present

Old Irish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

·estar

  1. third-person singular present subjunctive conjunct of ithid

Mutation[edit]

Old Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
estar unchanged n-estar
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Portuguese[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (Brazil, nonstandard)
  • tar (Portugal, nonstandard)

Etymology[edit]

From Old Portuguese estar, from Latin stāre (stand), present active infinitive of stō (stand), from Proto-Indo-European *steh₂-.

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

estar (first-person singular present indicative estou, past participle estado)

  1. to be (indicates location in space)
    Onde estás?
    Where are you?
    Estou em casa.
    I am home.
  2. to be (denotes a transient quality; a quality expected to change)
    O tempo estava frio.
    The weather was cold (at that moment).
    Estás louco?
    Are you crazy (right now)?
    A maçã está madura.
    The apple is ripe.
  3. (auxiliary) followed by the preposition a and infinitive (Portugal) or by gerund (Brazil), forms the progressive aspect
    Ela está cantando? / Ela está a cantar?
    Is she singing?
    Estavam trabalhando muito.
    They were working a lot.
    Estavamos a ler muito.
    We had been reading a lot.
    Estaremos a ler livros.
    We will be reading books.
  4. to cost (to be worth a certain amount of money), especially of something whose price changes often.
    O quilo de maçã está dois euros.
    A kilogram of apples costs two euros.

Conjugation[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

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Spanish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin stāre (stand), present active infinitive of stō (stand), from Proto-Indo-European *steh₂-.

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

estar (first-person singular present estoy, first-person singular preterite estuve, past participle estado)

  1. to be (have a (transient) location in space). Compare ser, quedar.
    ¿Dónde estás?
    Where are you?
    Estoy en casa.
    I am at home.
  2. to be (Denotes a copula, in a transient fashion). Compare ser.
    El tiempo estaba frío.
    The weather was cold [back then].
    ¿Estás feliz?
    Are you happy [right now]?
    El vaso está roto.
    The vase is broken. ("Estar," rather than "ser," precedes a past participle that is an adjective instead of a passive verb)
  3. to be (Auxiliary verb for the progressive/continuous aspect) (precedes the gerund of the verb)
    Ella está cantando.
    She is singing.

Conjugation[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

Spanish has two different verbs that are usually translated to English as “to be”: ser relates to essence, contrasting with estar, which relates to state. Contrast the following:

  • El hombre está felíz.—“The man is [currently] happy.”
  • El hombre es felíz.—“The man is [always] happy.”
  • ¿Estás loco?—“Are you crazy [currently out of your mind]?”
  • ¿Eres loco?—“Are you crazy [permanently insane]?”

Derived terms[edit]

  • estar por + infinitive: “to be to be done”, “to be (still) undone”:
    Esto todavía está por hacer.
    This is still to be done.

Related terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

See also[edit]