se

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search

Contents

Translingual[edit]

Abbreviation[edit]

se

  1. (ISO country codes) Sweden

Afrikaans[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • syn (obsolete)

Etymology[edit]

From Dutch z'n, unstressed form of zijn (his, its). Compare sy, which originates from the stressed form.

Pronunciation[edit]

Particle[edit]

se

  1. 's (follows a noun to indicate that the noun possesses whatever noun follows se)

Albanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Albanian *tśe(i), *tśi from Proto-Indo-European *kwe-, *kw(e)i- 'how, what'. Interrogative and relative pronoun, especially in connection with a preposition.

Pronunciation[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

se

  1. that as, when
    Më duket se ke nevojë për disa shokë të rinj.
    It seems to me that you need some new friends.
    Im vëlla më tha se don të bisedojë me ty rreth librit të ri.
    My brother told me that he wants to talk to you about the new book.
Related terms[edit]

Breton[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. that, this
    Petra eo se? ― What's that?

Catalan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin .

Pronoun[edit]

se (enclitic, contracted 's, proclitic es, contracted proclitic s')

  1. himself, herself, itself (direct or indirect object)
  2. oneself (direct or indirect object)
  3. themselves (direct or indirect object)
  4. each other (direct or indirect object)

Declension[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

The use of se and other direct personal pronouns can indicate the passive in Catalan.


Czech[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *sę.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se (reflexive pronoun)

  1. myself
  2. yourself
  3. himself
  4. herself
  5. itself
  6. ourselves
  7. yourselves
  8. themselves
  9. oneself

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Preposition[edit]

se (also s)

  1. with

Dalmatian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin .

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. (reflexive) oneself

Danish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Danish se, from Old Norse sjá, from Proto-Germanic *sehwaną, from Proto-Indo-European *sekʷ- (to see, notice). Compare Norwegian and Swedish se, Icelandic sjá.

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

se (imperative se, infinitive at se, present tense ser, past tense , past participle har/er set)

  1. To see.
  2. Imperative of se.

Esperanto[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Italian se, influenced by French si, Spanish si, and Latin .

Conjunction[edit]

se

  1. if

Ewe[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

se (plural sewo)

  1. law

Fala[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Portuguese se, sse, from Latin , from Proto-Indo-European *se-.

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. used for passive constructions with transitive verbs and undetermined agent (equivalent to one)
    • 2000, Domingo Frades Gaspar, Vamus a falal: Notas pâ coñocel y platical en nosa fala, Editora regional da Extremadura, Theme II, Chapter 2: Recunquista:
      Non poemos analizar con pormenoris estis siglos, pero tampoco se debi toleral que, sin fundamentus, se poña en duda algo que a Historia documentá nos lega sobre nossa terra.
      We can’t thoroughly analyse these centuries, but one mustn’t tolerate that, unfoundedly, something documented history tells us about our land be questioned.
  2. reflexive and reciprocal: oneself, himself, herself, itself, themselves, yourself; each other, one another
    • 2000, Domingo Frades Gaspar, Vamus a falal: Notas pâ coñocel y platical en nosa fala, Editora regional da Extremadura, Anexu: A Porcá:
      Cumían algu de herba por camiñus, se bañaban i os devulvían a casa por as tardis.
      They ate some pasture along the way, bathed themselves and were returned to their home in the afternoon.

Synonyms[edit]

  • (reflexive): -si

Finnish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Hyphenation: se
  • Rhymes: -e
  • IPA(key): [se]

Pronoun[edit]

se (stem se-, also si-, and sii-, see below)

  1. (demonstrative) it; (when the speaker does not point at the thing) that.
  2. (colloquial and dialectal) he, she.
  3. (colloquial) the (see the usage notes below).

Inflection[edit]

Irregular.

Usage notes[edit]

  • Due to the influence of Germanic languages, and nowadays especially to that of English, se may often be used as a kind of definite article in colloquial Finnish, though in standard Finnish it is ungrammatical, where word order expresses whether something is definite or indefinite. (Compare the usage of yksi.)
(standard) Mies tuli luokseni. → (colloquial) Se mies tuli mun luokse.
The man came to me.
(standard) Luokseni tuli mies. → (colloquial) Yks mies tuli mun luokse.
A man came to me.

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]


French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin .

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se m, f (pre-vocalic s')

  1. The third-person reflexive and reciprocal direct and indirect object pronoun.
    1. (to) himself
    2. (to) herself
    3. (to) oneself
    4. (to) themself
    5. (to) themselves
    6. (to) each other

Usage notes[edit]

  • Se becomes s' before a vowel or unaspirated h, and sometimes, in nonstandard writing, in other cases where the e would be silent, e.g. in lyrics.
  • Se is often used with an actual subject, but it is also very often used with an abstract subject:
    Il est normal de se parler. ― It is normal to talk to oneself.

See also[edit]

  • The other reflexive and reciprocal direct and indirect object pronouns: me, m', te, t', nous, vous.
  • The third-person reflexive and reciprocal disjunctive pronoun: soi.
Related terms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Anagrams[edit]

External links[edit]


Galician[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin , ablative and accusative pronoun form.

Pronoun[edit]

se reflexive, sg and pl

  1. himself, herself, itself (reflexive singular third-person personal pronoun)
  2. themselves (reflexive plural third-person personal pronoun)
Usage notes[edit]

The form se is the reflexive pronoun only when used as a direct or indirect object. The prepositional object reflexive form is si.

Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin .

Conjunction[edit]

se

  1. if

See also[edit]


Haitian Creole[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From French c'est (it is)

Verb[edit]

se

  1. to be
  2. that is (compare French c'est)
  3. it is (compare French c'est)

Usage notes[edit]

References[edit]


Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

se

  1. neither

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]


Ido[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Esperanto se.

Conjunction[edit]

se

  1. if
    La klerko komencus laborar se ilu povus. ― The clerk would begin to work if he could.
    Se me povus, me komprus altra domo. ― If I could, I would buy another house.

Interlingua[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se (third person)

  1. Reflexive: oneself, himself, herself, itself, themselves.
    Illa se videva in le speculo. ― She saw herself in the mirror.
  2. Reciprocal: each other, one another.
    Quando illes se cognosceva? ― When did they meet (each other)?
  3. Used for passive constructions with undetermined agent (translated by "one").
    De mi casa se vide le mar. ― From my house the sea is seen. (Literally, “...the sea sees itself.”)
  4. Hence, used for expressions of the type "to get/become ...-ed".
    espaventar — “to frighten”; espaventar se = "to get frightened" (lit., "to frighten oneself")

Usage notes[edit]

  • (reflexive, reciprocal, oneself, himself, herself, itself, themselves, each other, one another): Many verbs bear a reflexive pronoun by default. Se must be replaced by me, te, etc., according to the subject.
    infiltrar se — “to infiltrate”
    repentir se — “to repent”

Istriot[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

se

  1. if
    • 1877, Antonio Ive, Canti popolari istriani: raccolti a Rovigno, volume 5, Ermanno Loescher, page 99:
      Biela, se ti vedissi li galiere,
      Beautiful one, if you saw the galleys,

Italian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Late Latin se, from Latin si.[1]

Conjunction[edit]

se

  1. if
    Se non è vero, è ben trovato.
    If it is not true, it is a good story.
  2. whether
  3. if only
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. Alternative form of
Usage notes[edit]
  • Used especially when combined with verbs or other pronouns.
  • Becomes si when used as part of a reflexive verb.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Angelo Prati, "Vocabolario Etimologico Italiano", Torino, 1951

Japanese[edit]

Romanization[edit]

se

  1. rōmaji reading of
  2. rōmaji reading of

Kurdish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From West Iranian *spaka "dog-like, relating to dogs" (compare Median σπάκα (dog), Persian سگ (sag), and Old Armenian ասպակ (aspak, dog), a borrowing from Median), from Proto-Iranian (compare Avestan 𐬯𐬞𐬁 (spā), Pashto سپۍ (spəy)), from Proto-Indo-Iranian (compare Sanskrit श्वन् (śvā́)), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *ḱwṓ.

Noun[edit]

se ?

  1. (Kurmanji) dog

Kven[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. (personal) he, she, it

Synonyms[edit]


Ladin[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. (indefinite) one, you, we, they, people. Note: often translated using the passive voice in English.
  2. (reflexive) oneself, himself, herself, itself, themselves; (reciprocal) each other, one another. Note: With some verbs, si is not translated in English.

Latin[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Indo-European *se- (reflexive pronoun).

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

  1. the accusative of the reflexive pronoun meaning himself, herself, itself, themselves
    amat.
    He loves himself.
    Necessario aperiunt.
    They were forced to open themselves.
    In marī praecipitāvit.
    He drowned himself in the sea.
  2. the ablative of the reflexive pronoun meaning by himself, by herself, by itself, by themselves

Usage notes[edit]

  • There is little distinction made between the accusative forms and sēsē as the two forms are being used indifferently except that sēsē is preferred where emphasis is intended (especially in reference to a preceding ipse, or at the beginning or the end of a clause).

Inflection[edit]

Personal pronoun declension.

Singular First-person Second-person Reflexive
nominative egō
genitive meī tuī suī
dative mihi tibi sibi
accusative , sēsē
ablative , sēsē
vocative egō
possessive meus tuus suus
Plural First-person Second-person Reflexive
nominative nōs vōs
genitive nostrī, nostrum vestrī, vestrum suī
dative nōbīs vōbīs sibi
accusative nōs vōs , sēsē
ablative nōbīs vōbīs , sēsē
vocative nōs vōs
possessive noster vester, voster suus

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Aromanian: se
  • Catalan: se
  • Dalmatian: se
  • French: se, soi
  • Galician: se

See also[edit]


Lojban[edit]

Cmavo[edit]

se (rafsi sel)

  1. exchanges the x1 and x2 sumti of the following brivla
    mi se viska la djan. ― I am seen by John.
  2. indicates that the object of a preposition fills x2 of its corresponding brivla
    ti cukta se bau la oDET. ― This is a book in Odette's language.
  3. reverses the two clauses connected by a logical conjunction
    mi klama le zarci se.u le ckule ― I go to the school whether or not the store.

See also[edit]


Low German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Cognate to German sie, Dutch zij and ze.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. she
    Se is Anke.
    She is Anke (Annie).

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. they
    Se kaamt ut Bremen.
    They come from Bremen.

Lower Sorbian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *sę.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves, oneself
  2. each other, one another
  3. used to form passives

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • se in Manfred Starosta (1999): Dolnoserbsko-nimski słownik / Niedersorbisch-deutsches Wörterbuch. Bautzen: Domowina-Verlag.

Luxembourgish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. unstressed form of si

Declension[edit]


Malay[edit]

Malay cardinal numbers
0 1 2
    Cardinal : se

Etymology[edit]

Shortened form of esa, from Proto-Malayic *əsa, from Proto-Malayo-Chamic *əsa, from Proto-Malayo-Sumbawan *əsa, from Proto-Sunda-Sulawesi *əsa, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *əsa, from Proto-Austronesian *əsa.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Numeral[edit]

se (Jawi spelling س)

  1. (cardinal) one

Derived terms[edit]

Synonyms[edit]


Mandarin[edit]

Romanization[edit]

se

  1. Nonstandard spelling of .

Usage notes[edit]

  • English transcriptions of Mandarin speech often fail to distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without the appropriate indication of tone.

Middle English[edit]

Adverb[edit]

se

  1. so

Neapolitan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. reflexive third person pronoun: oneself, himself, itself, herself, themselves etc.

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse sjá, from Proto-Germanic *sehwaną, from Proto-Indo-European *sekʷ- (to see, notice). Compare Danish and Swedish se, Icelandic sjá.

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

se

  1. To see (perceive with eyes).

Conjugation[edit]


Novial[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. (reflexive) himself; herself; itself; themselves

Usage notes[edit]

  • Used only for the third person.

Old English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *sa, from Proto-Indo-European *só. Cognate with Old Saxon , Old Norse , Gothic 𐍃𐌰 (sa), Ancient Greek (ho). See also feminine forms under sēo.

Pronunciation[edit]

Article[edit]

se m (definite)

  1. the
    se mona.
    the moon.

Adjective[edit]

(demonstrative)

  1. that, those
    Þone ræd gerædde Widsið.
    Widsith gave that advice.

Pronoun[edit]

 m (demonstrative pronoun)

  1. he, it, that
    Þa ne sacað.
    They do not quarrel.

Usage notes[edit]

  • (he, it, that): se is normally read as when used pronominally.

Declension[edit]

Singular Plural
m n f
nominative þæt sēo þā
accusative þone þæt þā þā
genitive þæs þæs þǣre þāra, þǣra
dative þǣm, þām þǣm, þām þǣre þǣm, þām
instrumental þȳ, þī, þon

See also[edit]


Old French[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin (himself, herself, itself), accusative of reflexive pronoun.

Pronoun[edit]

se m, f (invariable)

  1. oneself
Descendants[edit]
  • French: se

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin si.

Conjunction[edit]

se

  1. if
Descendants[edit]
  • French: si

Old Frisian[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. she
  2. they

Old Irish[edit]

Determiner[edit]

se

  1. Alternative spelling of so

Old Saxon[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Representing the Proto-Indo-European demonstrative pronoun *siā, *sā, adapted in West Germanic as the definite article by analogy with the t- stem forms (Old Saxon that). Cognate with Old English seo, Old Norse , Gothic 𐍃𐍉 (), Ancient Greek ().

Article[edit]

 m (demonstrative)

  1. definite article: the
    mānothe moon
  2. demonstrative adjective: that, those
    Hē gaf thē gift. ― He gave that gift.

Declension[edit]


See also[edit]


Pilagá[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. I
    se-takeI want

References[edit]

  • 2001, Alejandra Vidal, quoted in Subordination in Native South-American Languages

Portuguese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Portuguese sse, se, from Latin , Proto-Indo-European *se- (reflexive pronoun).

Pronoun[edit]

se m, f (third person, including ‘você’ and ‘vocês)

  1. Reflexive and reciprocal: oneself, himself, herself, itself, themselves, yourself; each other, one another.
    Ela se viu no espelho. — “She saw herself in the mirror.”
    E você se diz um professor! — “And you call yourself a teacher!”
    Quando eles se conheceram? — “When did they meet (each other)?”
  2. Used for passive constructions with transitive verbs and undetermined agent (usually translated with one).
    Da minha casa se vê o mar. — “From my house the sea is seen.” (Literally, “...the sea sees itself.”)
  3. Hence, used for expressions of the type "to get/become ...-ed".
    espantar = "to frighten"; espantar-se = "to get frightened" (lit. "to frighten oneself")
  4. It also developed to a form of undetermined subject for intransitive verbs (usually translated with "one").
    Vive-se bem em Belém. — “One lives well in Belém.” (Literally, *“∅ lives oneself well in Belém.”)
Usage notes[edit]
  • When the verb precedes se, a hyphen must be used. In Portugal post-verb se is more common, while in Brazil it usually precedes the verb.
  • (Reflexive, reciprocal, oneself, himself, herself, itself, themselves, yourself; each other, one another): Many verbs bear a reflexive pronoun by default; they are called pronominal verbs. Se must be replaced by me, te, etc. according to the subject.
    comunicar-se (com) — “to communicate (with)”
    arrepender-se — “to repent”.
See also[edit]
Portuguese personal pronouns (edit)
Number Person Nominative
(subject)
Objective
(direct object)
Objective
(indirect object)
Prepositional Prepositional
with com
Non-declining
m f m f m and f m f m f m f
Singular First eu me mim comigo
Second tu te ti contigo você
o senhor a senhora
Third ele ela o
(lo, no)
a
(la, na)
lhe ele ela com ele com ela o mesmo a mesma
se (reflexive) si (reflexive) consigo (reflexive)
Plural First nós nos nós connosco (Portugal)
conosco (Brazil)
a gente
Second vós vos vós convosco vocês
os senhores as senhoras
Third eles elas os
(los, nos)
as
(las, nas)
lhes eles elas com eles com elas os mesmos as mesmas
se (reflexive) si (reflexive) consigo (reflexive)
Indefinite se (reflexive) si (reflexive) consigo (reflexive)

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Portuguese se, from Latin (if).

Conjunction[edit]

se

  1. if
    • 2007, J. K. Rowling, Lya Wyler, Harry Potter e as Relíquias da Morte, Rocco, page 317:
      Desculpe, acho que dá mais medo se for meia-noite!
      I'm sorry, I thought it would be more fearsome if it were midnight!
Synonyms[edit]
Antonyms[edit]

Romanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin .

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. (reflexive pronoun) oneself, himself, herself, itself, themselves

Related terms[edit]


Romansch[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (Rumantsch Grischun, Sursilvan) si
  • (Sutsilvan, Surmiran) sen
  • (Puter, Vallader)

Etymology[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page as described here.

Adverb[edit]

se

  1. (Sutsilvan, Surmiran) up, upward, upwards

Samoan[edit]

Article[edit]

se

  1. a (singular indefinite article)

See also[edit]


Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *sę.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se (Cyrillic spelling се)

  1. oneself (clitic form of reflexive pronoun)
    1. myself
    2. yourself
    3. himself
    4. herself
    5. itself
    6. ourselves
    7. yourselves
    8. themselves

Declension[edit]


Slovene[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *sę.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. oneself: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself (accusative)
  2. ourselves, yourselves, themselves (accusative)

Declension[edit]


Spanish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin .

Pronoun[edit]

se m, f (third person, including ‘usted’ and ‘ustedes)

  1. Third person (also used for usted and ustedes) reflexive direct or indirect object; oneself, himself, herself, itself, yourself; each other; one another
  2. Used to form the passive voice in the third person (also used for usted and ustedes).
    ¿Cómo se llama? — “What is your name?” (Literally, “How are you called?”)
  3. Used to form impersonal sentences.
    Se dice que... — “It is said that...”
  4. Used instead of indirect object pronouns le and les before the direct object pronouns lo, la, los, or las.
    El samaritano se las dio. — “The Samaritan gave them to him.”

See also[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

  • (third person (and used for ‘usted’ and ‘ustedes’) reflexive): Se is used as a suffix with verbs in the infinitive and imperative.
  • (passive voice): Se often conveys the passive voice without any literally reflexive connotation:
    Aquí se habla españolSpanish is spoken here or They speak Spanish here.

Verb[edit]

se (main verb saber)

  1. Misspelling of .

See also[edit]


Swedish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Swedish , sēa, sia, from Old Norse séa, sjá, from Proto-Germanic *sehwaną, from Proto-Indo-European *sekʷ- (to see, notice). Cognate with Danish se, Norwegian Nynorsk sjå and Icelandic sjá, English see, German sehen and Dutch zien.

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

se

  1. to see; use one's sight
    • 1888, August Strindberg, Fröken Julie
      Tvärtom, fröken Julie, som ni ser har jag skyndat uppsöka min övergivna!
      Quite the opposite, miss Julie, as you can see I have rushed to find my abandonned one!
    • 1915, John Wahlborg, Stjärnbanér i blågult
      Vad jag sett och hört och känt har helt enkelt överväldigat mig.
      What I have seen and heard and felt has quite simply overwhelmed me.
  2. to see; to understand
    Jag ser inte hur det skulle kunna vara möjligt.
    I don't see how that could be possible.
  3. to see; to form a mental picture of

Conjugation[edit]

Hypernyms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

use one's sight
understand

See also[edit]


Tarantino[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se (impersonal, reflexive)

  1. it
  2. one

Tocharian A[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Indo-European *suHyús. Cognate with Tocharian B soy, Old Armenian ուստր (ustr) and Ancient Greek υἱύς (huiús).

Noun[edit]

se m

  1. son

See also[edit]


Turkish[edit]

Noun[edit]

se

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter S/s.

See also[edit]


Tuvaluan[edit]

Article[edit]

se (indefinite article)

  1. a, an

Volapük[edit]

Preposition[edit]

se

  1. out of

Welsh[edit]

Verb[edit]

se

  1. (colloquial) Contraction of basai.

West Frisian[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. she
  2. they

Synonyms[edit]


Zazaki[edit]

Adverb[edit]

se

  1. what

Noun[edit]

se

  1. dative singular of is

Conjunction[edit]

se

  1. if