and

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English[edit]

Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (stressed) enPR: ănd IPA(key): /ænd/
  • (file)
  • (unstressed) enPR: ən(d) IPA(key): /ən(d)/, /ɛn/, /n̩/
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -ænd

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English and, an, from Old English and, ond, end (and), from Proto-Germanic *andi, *anþi, *undi, *unþi (and, furthermore), from Proto-Indo-European *h₂énti (facing opposite, near, in front of, before). Cognate with Scots an (and), North Frisian en (and), West Frisian en, in (and), Low German un (and), Dutch en (and), German und (and), Danish end (but), Swedish än (yet, but), Icelandic enn (still, yet), Albanian edhe (and) (dialectal ênde, ênne) , ende (still, yet, therefore), Latin ante (opposite, in front of), and Ancient Greek ἀντί (antí, opposite, facing).

Alternative forms[edit]

  • et (obsolete)

Conjunction[edit]

and

  1. As a coordinating conjunction; expressing two elements to be taken together or in addition to each other.
    1. Used simply to connect two noun phrases, adjectives or adverbs. [from 8th c.]
      • 1611, King James Version of the Bible (Authorized Version), Genesis 1:1
        In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.
      • 1817, Jane Austen, Persuasion:
        as for Mrs. Smith, she had claims of various kinds to recommend her quickly and permanently.
      • 2011, Mark Townsend, The Guardian, 5 Nov 2011:
        ‘The UKBA has some serious explaining to do if it is routinely carrying out such abusive and unlawful inspections.’
    2. Simply connecting two clauses or sentences. [from 8th c.]
      • 1991, Jung Chang, Wild Swans:
        When she saw several boys carrying a huge wooden case full of porcelain, she mumbled to Jinming that she was going to have a look, and left the room.
      • 2011, Helena Smith & Tom Kington, The Guardian, 5 Nov 2011:
        "Consensus is essential for the country," he said, adding that he was not "tied" to his post and was willing to step aside.
    3. Introducing a clause or sentence which follows on in time or consequence from the first. [from 9th c.]
      • 1996, David Beasley, Chocolate for the Poor:
        ‘But if you think you can get it, Christian, you're a fool. Set one foot upcountry and I'll kill you.’
      • 2004, Will Buckley, The Observer:, 22 Aug 2004:
        One more error and all the good work she had done on Friday would be for nought.
    4. (obsolete) Yet; but. [10th-17th c.]
      • 1611, Authorised (King James) Version, Bible, Matthew XXII:
        Hee said, I goe sir, and went not.
    5. Used to connect certain numbers: connecting units when they precede tens (not dated); connecting tens and units to hundreds, thousands etc. (now chiefly UK); to connect fractions to wholes. [from 10th c.]
      • 1863, Abraham Lincoln, ‘Gettysburg Address’:
        Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth, upon this continent, a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that "all men are created equal".
      • 1906, Upton Sinclair, The Jungle, Chapter 26
        In Chicago these latter were receiving, for the most part, eighteen and a half cents an hour, and the unions wished to make this the general wage for the next year.
      • 1956, Dodie Smith, (title):
        The One Hundred and One Dalmatians.
    6. (now colloquial or literary) Used to connect more than two elements together in a chain, sometimes to stress the number of elements.
      • 1623, William Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, First Folio, II.2:
        And these does she apply, for warnings and portents, / And euils imminent; and on her knee / Hath begg'd, that I will stay at home to day.
      • 1939, Langley, Ryerson & Woolf, The Wizard of Oz (screenplay):
        Lions, and tigers, and bears! Oh, my!
    7. Connecting two identical elements, with implications of continued or infinite repetition. [from 10th c.]
      • 1611, Authorised (King James) Version, Bible, Psalms CXLV:
        I will extol thee, my God, O king; and I will bless thy name for ever and ever.
      • 2011, Jonathan Watts, The Guardian, 18 Mar 2011:
        He was at work in a nearby city when the tsunami struck. ‘As soon as I saw it, I called home. It rang and rang, but there was no answer.’
    8. Introducing a parenthetical or explanatory clause. [from 10th c.]
      • 1918, George W. E. Russell, Prime Ministers and Some Others:
        The word "capable" occurs in Mr. Fisher's Bill, and rightly, because our mental and physical capacities are infinitely varied.
      • 2008, The Guardian, 29 Jan 2008:
        President Pervez Musharraf is undoubtedly sincere in his belief that he, and he alone, can save Pakistan from the twin perils of terrorism and anarchy.
    9. Introducing the continuation of narration from a previous understood point; also used alone as a question: ‘and so what?’.
      • 1611, Authorised (King James) Version, Bible, Revelation XIV:
        And I heard a voice from heaven, as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of a great thunder: and I heard the voice of harpers harping with their harps [...].
      • 1861, Charles Dickens, Great Expectations:
        ‘You take it smoothly now,’ said I, ‘but you were very serious last night, when you swore it was Death.’ ‘And so I swear it is Death,’ said he, putting his pipe back in his mouth [...].
      • 1914, Saki, ‘The Lull’, Beasts and Superbeasts:
        And, Vera,’ added Mrs. Durmot, turning to her sixteen-year-old niece, ‘be careful what colour ribbon you wear in your hair [...].’
    10. (now regional or somewhat colloquial) Used to connect two verbs where the second is dependent on the first: ‘to’. Used especially after come, go and try. [from 14th c.]
      • 1817, Jane Austen, Sanditon:
        Beyond paying her a few charming compliments and amusing her with gay conversation, had he done anything at all to try and gain her affection?
      • 1989, James Kelman, A Disaffection:
        Remember and help yourself to the soup! called Gavin.
    11. Introducing a qualitative difference between things having the same name; "as well as other". [from 16th c.]
      • 1936, The Labour Monthly, vol. XVIII:
        Undoubtedly every party makes mistakes. But there are mistakes and mistakes.
      • 1972, Esquire, vol. LXXVIII:
        "There are managers and there are managers," he tells me. "I'm totally involved in every aspect of Nina's career."
    12. Used to combine numbers in addition; plus (with singular or plural verb). [from 17th c.]
      • 1791, James Boswell, Life of Samuel Johnson:
        ‘Nobody attempts to dispute that two and two make four: but with contests concerning moral truth, human passions are generally mixed [...].’
      • 1871, Lewis Carroll, Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There:
        ‘Can you do Addition?’ the White Queen asked. ‘What's one and one and one and one and one and one and one and one and one and one?’
  2. Expressing a condition.
    1. (now US dialect) If; provided that. [from 13th c.]
      • 1485, Sir Thomas Malory, Le Morte Darthur, Book VII:
        "Where ys Sir Launcelot?" seyde King Arthure. "And he were here, he wolde nat grucche to do batayle for you."
      • 1526, William Tyndale, trans. Bible, Matthew XIV:
        Peter answered, and sayde: master, and thou be he, bidde me come unto the on the water.
      • 1958, Shirley Ann Grau, The Hard Blue Sky:
        "And he went slower," Mike said softly, "he go better."
    2. (obsolete) As if, as though. [15th-17th c.]
      • 1600, William Shakespeare, A Midsummer Night's Dream, I.2:
        I will roare you, and 'twere any Nightingale.
    3. (obsolete) even though
      As they will set an house on fire, and it were but to roast their eggs. — Francis Bacon.
Quotations[edit]
Usage notes[edit]
Synonyms[edit]
Translations[edit]
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English ande, from Old English anda (grudge, enmity, malice, envy, hatred, anger, zeal, annoyance, vexation; zeal; injury, mischief; fear, horror) and Old Norse andi (breath, wind, spirit); both from Proto-Germanic *andô (breath, anger, zeal), from Proto-Indo-European *ane- (to breathe, blow). Cognate with German Ahnd, And (woe, grief), Danish ånde (breath), Swedish anda, ande (spirit, breath, wind, ingenuity, intellect), Icelandic andi (spirit), Latin animus (spirit, soul). Related to onde.

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

and (plural ands)

  1. (UK dialectal) Breath.
  2. (UK dialectal) Sea-mist; water-smoke.

Etymology 3[edit]

From Middle English anden, from Old English andian (to be envious or jealous, envy) and Old Norse anda (to breath); both from Proto-Germanic *andōną (to breathe, sputter). Cognate with German ahnden (to avenge, punish), Danish ånde (to breathe), Swedish andas (to breathe), Icelandic anda (to breathe). See above.

Alternative forms[edit]

Verb[edit]

and (third-person singular simple present ands, present participle anding, simple past and past participle anded)

  1. (UK dialectal, intransitive) To breathe; whisper; devise; imagine.

Statistics[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Danish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse ǫnd, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂enh₁-ti- (duck).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

and c (singular definite anden, plural indefinite ænder)

  1. duck
  2. canard (false or misleading report or story)

Inflection[edit]


Estonian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finno-Ugric *amta. Cognates include Finnish antaa, Ter Sami ann'ted, and Hungarian ad. See also andma.

Noun[edit]

and (genitive anni, partitive andi)

  1. offering, gift
  2. alms, donation
  3. giftedness, talent
  4. act of giving

Declension[edit]


Gothic[edit]

Romanization[edit]

and

  1. Romanization of 𐌰𐌽𐌳

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Norwegian Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia no

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse ǫnd, from Proto-Germanic *anudz from Proto-Indo-European *h₂enh₁-ti- (duck).

Pronunciation[edit]

(file)

Noun[edit]

and m, f (definite singular anda or anden, indefinite plural ender, definite plural endene)

  1. duck
  2. canard (false or misleading report or story)

Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Norwegian Nynorsk Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia nn

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse ǫnd

Noun[edit]

and f (definite singular anda, indefinite plural ender, definite plural endene)

  1. a duck (waterbird)

Old English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *anda, *andi, probably from Proto-Indo-European *h₂énti (facing opposite, near, in front of, before). Compare Old Frisian and, Old Saxon endi, Old High German unti, Old Norse enn.

Pronunciation[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

and

  1. and

Synonyms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Adverb[edit]

and

  1. even; also

Old Frisian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *andi, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂énti (facing opposite, near, in front of, before). Compare Old English and, Old Saxon endi, Old High German unti, Old Norse enn.

Conjunction[edit]

and

  1. and

Descendants[edit]

  • North Frisian: en
  • West Frisian: en, in

Swedish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse ǫnd, from Proto-Germanic *anudz.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

and c

  1. a wild duck

Declension[edit]

Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]

  • anka (domesticated duck)

References[edit]