-s

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English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English -s, -es, from Old English -as, nominative-accusative plural ending of masculine a-stem (i.e. strong) declension nouns, from Proto-Germanic *-ōs, *-ōz, from Proto-Indo-European *-es, *-oes (plural ending). Most common Old English plural marker (c. 40% of Old English nouns). Cognate with Scots -s (plural ending), West Frisian -s (plural ending), Dutch -s (plural ending), Low German -s (plural ending), Danish -er (plural ending), Swedish -r, -ar, -or (plural ending), Icelandic -ir (plural ending), Gothic -𐍉𐍃 (-ōs, nominative plural ending of a-stem masculine nouns).

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Used to form regular plurals of nouns.
    one computerfive computers
  2. Used to form many pluralia tantum (nouns that are almost or entirely without singular forms).
    shorts, sunglasses
Usage notes[edit]
  • (regular plurals): In semi-formal or formal contexts, where the plurality of a noun depends on some unknown aspect of the sentence, the s may be parenthesised: "The winner(s) will be invited to a prize ceremony."
See also[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English -(e)s (third person singular ending of verbs) from Northern Old English (Northumbian dialect) -es, -as (third person singular ending). Replaced historical Old English third person singular ending -(e)þ, -aþ (-eth). Possibly due to Scandinavian influence or related to -es, -as, second-person singular ending of verbs. More at -est

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Used to form the third-person singular indicative present tense of verbs.
    to eathe eats
See also[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

see Category:English third-person singular forms

Etymology 3[edit]

From Middle English -es, from Old English -es (masc-neut genitive ending of most nouns). More at -'s

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. (not productive) used in the formation of certain English adverbs.
    backwards; towards
    always; sometimes
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

By dropping the apostrophe in 's.

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. (usually nonstandard) Alternative form of 's
Usage notes[edit]
  • In most cases where -s is found as a possessive case marker, it is a simple misspelling of -'s.
  • However, personal pronouns' possessive forms use -s (e.g. theirs, not their's).
  • Furthermore, in British English, bare -s is used in some business names that derive from possessive family names, e.g. Barclays and Harrods (originally Barclay's, Harrod’s), but compare Sainsbury’s; see Wikipedia's article on possessives in business names. In speech, /s/ is sometimes added to business names which have neither -s nor -'s in writing, resulting in s-forms, which see.

Etymology 5[edit]

Shortened form of -sy.

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Diminutive suffix
    Babs; moms; pops; homes; Toots
Derived terms[edit]

Danish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Used to form the genitive case of nouns.
    Danmarks dronning — the Queen of Denmark
    Københavns snefald — snowfall in Copenhagen

Dutch[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Unknown. Not present in Old Dutch, which used -a from Proto-Germanic *-ōz as the plural ending. Possibly spread from Middle Low German -s, -es, from Old Saxon -os, -as, from Proto-Germanic *-ōs. Further etymology is unknown, but cognate with Old English -as. See above.

Suffix[edit]

-s pl

  1. Used to form regular plurals of certain nouns (ending in e.g. -el, -er, -en, -em, -aar or diminutive -je).
    bodem - bodems
Usage notes[edit]

In cases regarding words of Latin origins ending with -um, the -s plural as a suffix is placed behind the word ending with -um. Thus the plural of -um is -um + -s. It is 1 of 2 plurals of -um, the other being -um becomes -a.

Etymology 2[edit]

From the genitive case of masculine and neuter nouns and adjectives, Middle Dutch -s, -es, from Old Dutch -es, -is, from Proto-Germanic *-as, *-is.

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. (archaic) Used to form the genitive case of (strong) masculine and neuter nouns.
    tijd - de tand des tijds
  2. Used to form the partitive form of the adjective
    lief - iets liefs
  3. Used to form adverbs
    stad - steeds
Derived terms[edit]

The adverbial/adjectival -s combines with other suffixes like :

Etymology 3[edit]

From earlier -sch, from Middle Dutch -sc, -sch, from Old Dutch -isc, from Proto-Germanic *-iskaz (from which also -isch via German), from Proto-Indo-European *-iskos.

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Used to form adjectives of characteristic from nouns.
    winter - winters
    spel - speels
  2. Used to form adjectives or language names from names of nations or countries.
    Engeland - Engels
    Finland - Fins

Finnish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-c.

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Forms ordinal numbers from cardinal numbers, or ordinal pronouns.
    mones
Usage notes[edit]

Added to the genitive singular (weak grade) stem.

Declension[edit]

Back vowel harmony:

Front vowel harmony:

Etymology 2[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page as described here.

Particle[edit]

-s

  1. (enclitic) When appended to a second-person singular or plural imperative, gives the command or request slightly rude or impatient tone—often with different verbs and different independent particles adjacent, the tone is different:
    • Kuules nyt! (addressing one person)
      • Now do listen! (with nyt, quite an established expression of frustration, speaker very impatient)
    • Kuulkaas nyt! (addressing many persons or formally one person)
      • Now do ye listen! (same tone as above)
    • Tees nämä tehtävät. (addressing one person, tone less impatient)
      • Go do these tasks.
  2. (enclitic) When appended to the particle -pa/-pä that is appended to a second-person imperative, gives the command or request a slightly more persuasive or inspiring tone:
    • Laitapas lautaset pöytään.
      • Hey, go put the plates on the table.
  3. (enclitic) Mainly in informal contexts: a particle appended to an interrogative suffix -ko/-kö of the verb conjugated (also - with the negation verb) in order to bring the conversation partner or a person outside the conversation, talked about, emotionally closer to the speaker, or to create familiarity into the conversation; also to express that closeness or familiarity—sometimes very difficult to translate well into English, in some cases corresponds the tag questions:
  4. (enclitic, colloquial) appended to the shortened impersonal indicative present form (-n omitted) to soften the command or request or to make it more persuasive:
    • Tehdääs tämä huomenna.
      • Let's go do this tomorrow.

See also[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From apocope of the final vowel of -ssa, -ssä.

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. (case suffix, colloquial or dialectal) Alternative form of -ssa

French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle French -s, from Old French -s, from the Latin accusative -s.

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Used to form the regular plural of nouns.
    hommes

See also[edit]


German[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Used to form the genitive of many nouns.

See also[edit]


Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Added to a noun to form an adjective meaning "having something, a quality".
    (salt) → s (salty)
  2. Added to a noun to form an occupation or a collective noun.
    hajó (ship) → hajós (sailor)
  3. Added to an ordinal number to form a digit or figure.
    nulla (zero) → nullás (the digit or figure 0)

Usage notes[edit]

  • Member of the following suffix cluster:
    -s is added to words ending in a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-.
    -os is added to some back vowel words ending in a consonant
    -as is added to other back vowel words ending in a consonant
    -es is added to unrounded front vowel words ending in a consonant
    -ös is added to rounded front vowel words ending in a consonant

See also[edit]


Manx[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. -self (emphatic)

Usage notes[edit]

See also[edit]


Norwegian[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Used to form the genitive case of nouns.
  2. Used to form the passive of verbs.

Usage notes[edit]

  • If the genitive noun already ends with a sibilant, only an apostrophe (-') is added. It is incorrect to use an apostrophe before the s.

Old English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-isjō, *-usjō.

Suffix[edit]

-s f

  1. (often affects the value or quality of preceding consonants, may or may not cause i-mutation) Feminine noun suffix forming nouns from adjectives and verbs
    milts "mercy" (earlier milds), from milde "gentle, mild"
    liss "grace" (earlier liþs, līþs), from līþe "gentle, limber"
    cwiss (earlier cwiþs) "a saying", from cweþan "to say, speak"

Declension[edit]


Old French[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • -z (for most words that don't end in -e)

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. indicates a nominative singular of a masculine noun or adjective
  2. indicates an oblique plural of a masculine noun or adjective
  3. indicates a nominative plural of a feminine noun or adjective
  4. indicates an oblique plural of a feminine noun or adjective

Descendants[edit]

  • Middle French: -s
    • French: -s

Portuguese[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-s m pl, f pl

  1. Used to form the regular plural of nouns which end in vowels.
    • 2007, Lya Wyler (translator), J. K. Rowling (English author), Harry Potter e as Relíquias da Morte (Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows), Rocco, page 308:
      Você notou os cabelos dela, são negros e brilhantes e macios...
      Did you notice her hair, it's dark and bright and soft...

Quechua[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Evidential suffix, second-hand information. Indicates that the speaker has not directly experienced the information at hand; hearsay
    Qusqumantas kanki.
    (They say that) you are from Cusco.
    Inisqa qayna ñañantas watukusqan.
    Inez visited her sister yesterday (so I heard).

See also[edit]


Spanish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Used to form the regular plural of nouns which end in vowels.
    amigo (friend) → amigos (friends)

Swedish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-s

  1. Used to form the genitive case of nouns.
  2. Used to inflect verbs for the passive voice.