- 1 English
- 2 Danish
- 3 Dutch
- 4 French
- 5 Norwegian
- 6 Old English
- 7 Swedish
- 8 Uzbek
- IPA(key): /ɪŋ/ (standard)
- IPA(key): /ɪn/ (colloquial)
- (US, Canada) Homophone: een (some dialects)
- (UK, Australia) Homophone: ink (some dialects)
Approximately 60% of English speakers pronounce gerund -ing (etymology 1) differently from participial -ing (etymology 2). In such cases, the gerund form is pronounced /ɪŋ/, and the participial form is pronounced /ɪn/ or /iːn/. This actually reflects the older etymology of the two forms, as the participial form originally did not have a g, so these speakers are not actually "dropping the g" in the historic sense.
From Middle English -ing, from Old English -ing, -ung (“-ing”, suffix forming nouns from verbs), from Proto-Germanic *-ingō, *-ungō, from Proto-Indo-European *-enkw-. Cognate with West Frisian -ing (“-ing”), Dutch -ing (“-ing”), Low German -ing (“-ing”), German -ung (“-ing”), Swedish -ing (“-ing”), Icelandic -ing (“-ing”).
- Used to form gerunds, a type of verbal nouns, from verbs.
- the making of the film
- Used to form uncountable nouns from various parts of speech denoting materials or systems of objects considered collectively.
- Roofing is a material that covers a roof.
- Piping is a system of pipes considered collectively.
- Used to form nouns of the action or the procedure of a verb; usually identical with meaning 1. in the English language or expressed with -tion instead
- The forging of the sword took hours. - where forging denotes a planned procedure of work rather than a specific physical action
The translations below are a guide only. See individual words for precise translations.
From Middle English -inge, -ynge, alteration of earlier -inde, -ende, -and (see -and), from Old English -ende (present participle ending), from Proto-Germanic *-andz (present participle ending), from Proto-Indo-European *-nt-. Cognate with Dutch -end, German -end, Gothic -𐌰𐌽𐌳 (-and), Latin -ans, -ant-, Ancient Greek -ον (-on), Sanskrit -अन्त् (-ant). More at -and.
- Used to form present participles of verbs.
- Rolling stones gather no moss.
- You are making a mess.
- a. 2001, Brian Hall, “Beej's Guide to Network Programming”, “Using Internet Sockets”
- If you are connect()ing to a remote machine […] you can simply call connect(), it'll check to see if the socket is unworthy, and will bind() it to an unused local port if necessary.
- Forming derivative nouns (originally masculine), with the sense ‘son of, belonging to’, as patronymics or diminutives.
- Browning, Channing, Ewing
- Having a specifed quality, characteristic, or nature; of the kind of
- added to a verb to form a noun for an action or process, the result of or the subject performing such action
- designate a person of a certain origin or with certain qualities
Nouns are in the common gender, and inflected -(n)ing -en, -er, -erne.
- -ing; appended to a verb, this suffix is used to refer to the performance of the action of that verb, and the result thereof. The result is a verbal noun which in Dutch is called naamwoord van handeling (noun of action).
- suffix used to form nouns
- Most terms suffixed with -ing are borrowed directly from English, but some are not (surbooking, lifting, relooking).
-ing f or m (see below)
The gender is usually f if the word ended in -ing in Old Norse and m if it ended in -ingr or -ingi. Living things like islending (“Icelander”) and dumming (“idiot”) are usually m whilst inanimate things like stråling (“radiation”) and eting (“the act of eating”) usually are f.
- færøying (< Old Norse: færeyingr)
- hjaltlending (< Old Norse: hjaltlendingr, = shetlendar) (Nynorsk)
- leilending (Bokmål), leiglending (Nynorsk) (from Old Norse leiglendingr, from leiguland + -ingr)
- shetlending (= shetlendar (Nynorsk), shetlender (Bokmål))
- viking (< Old Norse: víkingr)
Variant of -ung.
- second-person singular possessive suffix. Used after a noun ending in a consonant. It has the same meaning as sening (“your”) placed before a noun.
- Bu kitobing.
- This is your book.
- Bu kitobing.