-ke

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Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Dutch -ke, -ken, -kijn, from Proto-Germanic *-ukīną. This suffix is a double diminutive representing two distinct Germanic suffixes, *-uk- + *-īn-. This -īn- suffix is also used (with an additional -l-) in German -lein. Cognate with German -chen and regional German -ken. Dutch -tje and -ken are cognate variants. More at -ock, -en.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ke n (plural -kes)

  1. Appended to a noun, making it diminutive.

Usage notes[edit]

This suffix is primarily dialectal, official Dutch almost exclusively uses the related suffix -tje and varieties.

References[edit]

  1. ^ A. van Loey, "Schönfeld's Historische Grammatica van het Nederlands", Zutphen, 8. druk, 1970, ISBN 90-03-21170-1; §185

Estonian[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ke (genitive -kese, partitive -kest)

  1. A noun suffix that builds diminutives from nouns.
  • kivi (stone) → kivike (a small stone)

Declension[edit]

This noun needs an inflection-table template.


Finnish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ke

  1. Forms diminutive forms of nouns.
    aalto (wave) → aalloke (wavelet)
    siipi (wing) → siiveke (aileron)
    lause (sentence) → lauseke (expression; phrase)
  2. Forms nouns from verbs, often to describe the result of an action.
    elää (to live) → eläke (pension)
    seisahtaa (to come to a standstill) → seisake (railway stop)
  3. (rare) Forms nouns from adjectives.
    lämmin (warm) → lämmike (something used to warm up)

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • § 257 ke-sanojen koostumus ja merkitys, Iso suomen kielioppi, 2004[1]

German Low German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Compare German -chen, Dutch -ke.

Suffix[edit]

-ke

  1. (Low Prussian) Suffix used to form the diminutive of nouns and hypocoristic forms of proper nouns and other parts of speech.
    Brotke
    bread
    Anke
    Annie
    Gottke
    God
    kommke
    come (second-person singular present imperative, hypocoristic)

References[edit]

  • Erhard Riemann (et al.), Preußisches Wörterbuch: deutsche Mundarten Ost- und Westpreußens (1974)
  • A. Treichel, Dialectische Räthsel, Reime und Märchen aus dem Ermlande, in the Altpreussische Monatsschrift, volume 27 (1890)
  • H. Frischbier, Preussisches Wörterbuch, Ost- und westpreussische Provinzialismen, volume 1, A-K (1882)
  • H. Frischbier, Preussisches Wörterbuch, Ost- und westpreussische Provinzialismen, volume 2, L-Z (1883)

Hungarian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finno-Ugric, compare to Finnish -kka.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ke

  1. Diminutive suffix.
    egy (one) → egyke (only child)
    egér (mouse) → egérke (tiny mouse)

Usage notes[edit]

  • Member of the following suffix cluster:
    -ka is added to back vowel words
    -ke is added to front vowel words

See also[edit]