-us

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Esperanto[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The Esperanto suffixes -as, -is, -os, -us are related, and appear to have been inspired by previous language projects:

This play of vowels is not an original idea of Zamenhof's: -as, -is, -os are found for the three tenses of the infinitive in Faiguet's system of 1765; -a, -i, -o without a consonant are used like Z's -as, -is, -os by Rudelle (1858); Courtonne in 1885 had -am, -im, -om in the same values, and the similarity with Esperanto is here even more perfect than in the other projects, as -um corresponds to Z's -us.An International Language (1928)

In addition, the u of -us is likely to be related to -u.

Suffix[edit]

-us

  1. Ending of the conditional in verbs.

Estonian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with Finnish -us.

Suffix[edit]

-us (genitive -use, partitive -ust)

  1. Derives nouns from verbs.
    armastama "to love" → armastus "love"
    võistlema "to compete" → võistlus "competition"
    joonistama "to draw" → joonistus "a drawing"

Declension[edit]

This noun needs an inflection-table template.

Derived terms[edit]


Finnish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Generalized from -s-derivatives of u-stem verbs (e.g. ihastuaihastus, menestyämenestys) and nominals (e.g. etu-edus, palvelupalvelus), or through the loss of a plain u-derivative from the standard language (e.g. keski- → dial. kesku-keskus). Compare -os.

Suffix[edit]

-us (front vowel harmony variant -ys)

  1. Forms nouns from verbs, describing an action or event.
    kuvata (to describe) → kuvaus (description)
    pakata (to pack) → pakkaus (package)
    ylentää (to promote) → ylennys (promotion)
    hälyttää (to alarm) → hälytys (an alarm)
  2. Forms nouns, indicating resemblance or association.
    kanta (base) → kannus (spur)
    sormi (finger) → sormus (ring)
    vasta- (counter-) → vastus (resistance, opposition)
    kehä (circle, ring) → kehys (frame)
    syli (bosom, lap) → sylys (armful)
    typerä (stupid) → typerys (fool)
Declension[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-us (front vowel harmony variant -ys)

  1. Short form of the suffix -uus, used where the stem of the root adjective ends in a vowel.
Declension[edit]

Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-us

  1. Diminutive suffix.
    apa (father) → apus (dad)
    Kata (Kate) → Katus (Katie)
    cica (cat) → cicus (kitty)
    kutya (dog) → kutyus (pooch, puppy)
  2. A distinguishable foreign word ending in nouns. It is not considerable as an independent Hungarian suffix.
    agronómus (agronomist)

Usage notes[edit]

(diminutive suffix): It creates diminutive or affectionate forms, most of the time of people's given names, but also of common nouns, ususally ending in a. Other examples: Anna → Annus, Magda → Magdus, Gyula → Gyulus. The -ka diminutive suffix can also be appended after -us to further increase the degree of endearment: apuska, cicuska, kutyuska, Annuska, Magduska.

See also[edit]

References[edit]


Old French[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-us

  1. -ous, used for forming adjectives

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]


Old Irish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-us

  1. Used to form abstract nouns from adjectives and occasionally nouns

Descendants[edit]

See also[edit]

  • Old Irish: -as

Suffix[edit]

-us (suffixed pronoun)

  1. her (object pronoun)
  2. them

Related terms[edit]

  • s- (class A infixed pronoun)
  • da- (class B & C infixed pronoun)

Derived terms[edit]