-um

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search

English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From the homographic case endings of the nominative, accusative, and vocative forms of numerous neuter Latin second declension nouns.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-um (plural -a)

  1. Denotes singular grammatical number.
  2. (chemistry) Forms the ends of the names of certain elements (such as molybdenum and platinum).
  3. Denotes transitive verbs in the trade pidgins used between English-speakers and indigenous populations; used derogatorily by extension in English by addition to any verb, transitive or not.
    • 1896, F J Stimsom, King Noanett: A Story of Old Virginia and the Massachusetts Bay, p. 254:
      "Givum dinner; smokum pipe," was all that we could get out of Quatchett.
    • 1871 Mrs. Edward Millett, An Australian parsonage; or, The settler and the savage in Western Australia, p. 129:
      Having finished her return of deaths, she went on to say "Black fellow sick—white lady fowl sendum—white lady kangaroo sendum—master all self eatum—" but here she paused and made an exception in favour of the matron, expressed by the words " Missis not eatum—missis good fellow."

Usage notes[edit]

  • The vast majority of words which feature this suffix also have standard -ums plurals formed by suffixation with the -s plural suffix. However, in such situations, the -s suffix morphologically is additional to and separate from the -um suffix.

See also[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Translations[edit]


Bislama[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

English him, 'em

Suffix[edit]

-um

  1. Indicates a transitive verb

Usage notes[edit]

The suffix to be used is determined by vowel harmony. If the last vowel in the stem is u, then the suffix is -um. Otherwise, use -em or -im.


Dutch[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-um (plural -a or -ums)

  1. Denotes singular grammatical number of words of Latin origins.

Usage notes[edit]

  • Both the plural forms of -a and -ums are used in everyday language, but the latter is sometimes proscribed against.

See also[edit]


Hungarian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Latin -um (2nd declension neuter nominative singular termination)

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-um

  1. A distinguishable foreign word-ending in nouns of Latin origin. It is not considered an independent Hungarian suffix.
    abszurdum (absurdity)

See also[edit]

References[edit]


Icelandic[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-um

  1. Used to form the dative plural of most nouns, all strong adjectives and most pronouns.
  2. Used to form the first person plural of verbs in the indicative and subjunctive, past and present.
  3. Used to form some adverbs from nouns or adjectives — it is actually a frozen dative

Old Irish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-um (suffixed pronoun)

  1. me

Related terms[edit]

  • m- (class A infixed pronoun)
  • dom-, dam- (class B & C infixed pronoun)

Derived terms[edit]

Category Old Irish words suffixed with -um not found

Pijin[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

English him, 'em

Suffix[edit]

-um

  1. Indicates a transitive verb

Usage notes[edit]

The suffix to be used is determined by vowel harmony. If the last vowel in the stem is u, then the suffix is -um. Otherwise, use -em or -im.


Scots[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English, from Old English -um, dative plural ending used to form adverbials.

Suffix[edit]

-um

  1. (rare) Used to form adverbs.
    legim (astride)

Etymology 2[edit]

Probably of jocular formation, based partly on Latin -um and partly an altered form of -in(g)s, a verbal noun ending.

Suffix[edit]

-um

  1. Added to nouns or verbs to form nouns with diminutive or hypocoristic force

Turkish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-um

  1. First-person singular possessive suffix denoting singular possession in words ending in a consonant.
    okul - okulum
    school - my school
    yol - yolum
    way - my way
  2. Conjugation of the verb "to be" for first person singular simple present tense.
    masum - masumum
    innocent - I am innocent

Usage notes[edit]

  • If the noun ends in a vowel, it becomes "-m" (for the possessive suffix)
    soru - sorum
  • It's used only when the word's last vowel is "o" or "u". It may change into "-im", "-ım" and "-üm" according to the last vowel of the word. (possessive suffix)
    ev - evim (the last vowel is "e" or "i")
    kız - kızım (the last vowel is "a" or "ı")
    yüz - yüzüm (the last vowel is "ö" or "ü")
  • If the word ends in "p", "ç", "t" or "k", it may change them into "b", "c", "d" and "ğ".
    grup - grubum
    burç - burcum
    periyot - periyodum
    çocuk - çocuğum
  • It may cause the last vowel of the word to be dropped.
    burun - burnum
  • If the word ends in a vowel, an auxiliary consonant is used ; "y". (for the verb to be)
    mutlu - mutluyum
  • It must be used with an apostrophe while using with a proper noun.
    Umut - Umut'um

Volapük[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-um

  1. Used to form the comparative form of adjectives.