Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents German pronunciations in Wiktionary entries.
See German phonology at Wikipedia for a more thorough look at the sounds of German.
- ^ In free variation with ʀ and also — in Switzerland, Bavaria, and Austria — the voiced alveolar trill r. Compare /ɐ/.
- ^ /x/ is realized as a uvular fricative [χ] after [a], [aː], and often [ʊ], [ɔ], and [aʊ].
- ^ The presence or absence of [ʔ] is not phonemic. In most standard varieties of German, all initial vowels are preceded by [ʔ]. However, this does not generally hold true for Swiss Standard German and most colloquial varieties.
- ^ [ɛː] is often replaced by [eː], chiefly in northern and eastern Germany.
- ^ Some references transcribe this diphthong as /ɔɪ/.
- ^ Compare /ʁ/.
- Duden 6: Das Aussprachewörterbuch (3rd edition, 1990, ISBN 3-411-20916-X).