-ko

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Finnish[edit]

Particle[edit]

-ko (in words with back vowels a, o, u or i or e with a, o, u)

  1. (enclitic) Turns any word into an interrogative. When appended to a verb, it corresponds clauses formed with e.g. do, does, don't, and doesn't in English or the inversion with auxiliaries. When appended to another word, it is expressed in English by intonation or eh.
    Tuleeko hän? (tulee > + -ko, not -kö)
    Does s/he come?
    Onko hän täällä? (on > + -ko, not -kö)
    Is s/he here?
    laivalla = on the boat (laivalla > + -ko, not -kö)
    laivallako? = on the boat, eh?
  2. (enclitic) In indirect questions, -ko appended to the verb corresponds the conjunctions if and whether in English.
    En tiedä, tuleeko hän.
    I don't know if she comes.
  3. (enclitic) With the particle -han (han required by the vowel harmony), expresses "I wonder if".
    Pukeutuikohan hän tarpeeksi lämpimästi tänä aamuna?
    I wonder if he put enough clothes on this morning.

Usage notes[edit]

  • (interrogative particle) The particle -ko is used when there is no other interrogative word, in both direct and indirect questions. The answer is expected to be simply affirmative or negative.
  • (I wonder if) Note that, unlike in English, the sentence meaning "I wonder if" is an interrogative sentence in Finnish, so it ends with a question mark.
  • In Colloquial Finnish, "-ks" (pronounced like "yksi" without the y or i) is used in place of "-ko".

See also[edit]


Polish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ko n

  1. Diminutive suffix for neuter nouns

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ko (Cyrillic spelling -ко)

  1. Suffix appended to words to create a masculine noun, usually denoting a negative feature.