-ni

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Classical Nahuatl[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ni

  1. Marks a verb's habitual or customary present tense.

Finnish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ni (appended to the (strong) vowel stem; the final -n of the genitive and illative singular and plural or the -t of the nominative plural is omitted)

  1. (possessive) suffix used with or without minun (the genitive of the personal pronoun minä), corresponds to the English possessive pronoun my:
    (minun) kirjani = my book/books
    (minun) valaani = my oath/of my oath (partitive of vala) or my whale/whales (valas)
  2. (possessive) appended to a genitive-requiring postposition that is after or without minun (the genitive of the personal pronoun minä), me:
    (minun) edessäni = in front of me
    (minun) takanani = behind me
  3. (possessive) used in a participle structure replacing an "että" clause, preceded by a verb expressing, e.g., telling, claiming, asserting, confirming, thinking, wish, desire, seeming, when the clauses have the same subject "I"; appended to the active present participle in genitive singular when the action is concurrent with the main clause:
    Sanoin tekeväni läksyjäni.
    I said that I was doing my homework. (similar to the Latin structure accusativus cum infinitivo, e.g., "se dicit facere")
  4. (possessive) used in a participle structure replacing an "että" clause, preceded by a verb expressing, e.g., telling, claiming, asserting, confirming, thinking, wish, desire, seeming, when the clauses have the same subject "I"; appended to the active past participle in genitive singular when the said/alleged (etc.) action antedates the main clause:
    Väitin tehneeni läksyjäni.
    I claimed to have been doing my homework.
  5. (possessive) used in a shortened sentence expressing concurrent actions when the clauses have the same subject "I", appended to the inessive of the active second infinitive:
    Tehdessäni läksyjäni (minä) kuulin laukauksen ulkoa.
    (While) doing my homework, I heard a shot from outside.
  6. (possessive) used in a shortened sentence expressing subsequent actions when the clauses have the same subject "I", appended to the partitive of the passive past participle singular:
    Tehtyäni läksyni (minä) kuulin laukauksen ulkoa.
    (After) having done / After doing my homework, I heard a shot from outside.
  7. (possessive) used in a final shortened sentence expressing "in order to do" when the clauses have the same subject "I", appended to the long first infinitive:
    Tehdäkseni läksyni hyvin (minä) menin hiljaiseen huoneeseen.
    (In order) to do my homework well, I went into a quiet room.
  8. (possessive) Used in some adverbs, when the clause has the subject "I".
    Olen hyvin pahoillani siitä.
    I'am very sorry about it.
  9. (possessive) Always appended to a noun in the comitative case when the clause has the subject "I".
    Kävelin kirjoineni ovesta ulos.
    I walked with my books out the door.

Usage notes[edit]

  • The possessive suffix -ni is compulsory in standard Finnish. In standard Finnish, when expressing ownership or before a postposition, the genitive form of the corresponding personal pronoun "minä" before the main word can be omitted. In colloquial Finnish, the suffix -ni is very rare and only the genitive form "minun" (or its colloquial or dialectal variants) is used before the main word.
  • The shortened sentences — except for the participle structures — pertain mainly to standard Finnish, not to spoken Finnish. It is also to be noticed that the shortened clauses are never separated from the main clauses with a comma.

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]


Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ni

  1. Suffix of the infinitive.
    ad (give) → adni (to give)

Usage notes[edit]

  • Member of the following suffix cluster:
-ni is added to most verbs
ad (give) → adni (to give)
-ani is added to back vowel verbs ending in -ít or in two consonants
tanít (teach) → tanítani (to teach)
akaszt (hang) → akasztani (to hang)
bont (demolish) → bontani (to demolish)
-eni is added to front vowel verbs ending in -ít or in two consonants
veszít (lose) → veszíteni (to lose)
ijeszt (frighten) → ijeszteni (to frighten)
csökkent (reduce) → csökkenteni (to reduce)
-nni is added to verbs with variant stems
vesz (buy) → venni (to buy)
eszik (eat) → enni (to eat)

See also[edit]


Maltese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Arabic ـني (-nī).

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

-ni

  1. me (enclitic object pronoun)

Related terms[edit]


Quechua[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ni

  1. First-person singular subject.
    rimay (to speak) → ñuqa rimani (I speak)
  2. Epenthetic suffix inserted between consonant clusters.
    yachachiq (teacher) +‎ -y (my) → *yachachiqyyachachiqniy (my teacher)

See also[edit]


Sicilian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ni

  1. added to words that are stressed on the final syllable to move stress to the penultimate syllable
    tutuni (you)
    ccàccani (here)

Swahili[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ni

  1. Second person plural:
    you, (archaic) ye
  2. With nouns, indicates location: in/inside, at, on
    nyumbani (at home, in the house)
    mezani (on the table)

Usage notes[edit]

  • (second-person plural) Used in conjunction with the direct imperative to form the plural. With native (Bantu)/nativized verbs in -a, vowel changes to -e:
    Kisomeni (Read it!) (from soma)
    Jibuni (Answer!) (from jibu)
  • (second-person plural) Used in conjunction with the class 1 (personal) object affix -wa- to disambiguate the second-person plural from the third person plural; verbs in -a change this to -e before the affix:
    Niliwasomeeni (I read to you) vs. Niliwasomea (I read to them)

Zulu[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

-ni

  1. what
    Udlani?
    What are you eating?
    Yini lokhu?
    What is this?

Usage notes[edit]

Unlike other pronouns, -ni always appears attached to another word. However, it does have a copulative form yini.

Adjective[edit]

-ni

  1. (Can we add an example for this sense?) what (kind of)

Usage notes[edit]

The adjective is placed after the noun, and agrees with it in concord like other modifiers. However, not the adjective concord is attached, but rather the basic noun prefix.