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Deva-sa.png
Unicode name DEVANAGARI LETTER SA
Unicode block Devanagari
Codepoint U+0938
See also:

Translingual[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /sə/ (may vary by language)

Letter[edit]

(sa)

  1. The third sibilant of the Devanagari script. Linguistically it is considered an alveolar sibilant.

See also[edit]

Ligatures:


Sanskrit[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Letter[edit]

  1. the last of the three sibilants, /s/

Etymology 2[edit]

Noun[edit]

(sa)

  1. (prosody) an anapest

Etymology 3[edit]

Abbreviation[edit]

(sa)

  1. (in music) an abbreviated term for षड्ज (ṣaḍ-ja)

Etymology 4[edit]

Noun[edit]

(sam

  1. a snake
  2. air, wind
  3. a bird
  4. name of Vishnu or Shiva
Declension[edit]

Noun[edit]

(san

  1. knowledge
  2. meditation
  3. a carriage road
  4. a fence
Declension[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

From the root √san (√san, to procure, bestow, give, distribute).

Adjective[edit]

(sa)

  1. procuring, bestowing (only at the end of a compound)
    पशुष (paśu-ṣá) — bestowing cattle
    प्रियस (priyá-sá) — granting desired objects

Etymology 6[edit]

From Proto-Indo-European *só, *séh₂, *tód. Cognate with Ancient Greek (ho), (), τό (), Old Church Slavonic тъ () та (ta), то (to), and Old English se (English the). Confer also suppletive-stem feminine and neuter forms सा (), तद् (tad).

Pronoun[edit]

(m

  1. (3rd person pronoun) he
Declension[edit]
Usage notes[edit]

The final s of the nominative m sás is dropped before all consonants (except before /p/ in RV. v, 2, 4, and before /t/ in RV. viii, 33, 16) and appears only at the end of a sentence in the form of visarga. sa occasionally blends with another vowel (as in saī*ṣaḥ) and it is often for emphasis connected with another pronoun as with अहम् (aham), त्वम् (tvam), एष (eṣa), अयम् (ayam) etc.

so 'ham sa tvam — I (or thou) that very person; cf. under तद् (tád)

The verb then following in the 1st and 2nd person even if aham or tvam be omitted

sa tvā pṛcchāmi — I that very person ask you
sa vai no brūhi — do thou tell us

Similarly, to denote emphasis, with भवान् (bhavān)

sa bhavān vijayāya pratiṣṭhatām — let your Highness set out for victory

It sometimes (and frequently in the Brāhmaṇas) stands as the first word of a sentence preceding a relatve pronoun or adverb such as (ya), यद् (yad), यदि (yadi), यथा (yathā), चेद् (ce*d); in this position sa may be used pleonastically or as a kind of indeclinable, even where another gender or number is required

sa yadi sthāvarā āpo bhananti — if those waters are stagnant

In the Sāṃkhya sa, like एष (eṣa), (ka), and (ya), is used to denote पुरुष (puruṣa), "the Universal Soul".

Etymology 7[edit]

Prefix[edit]

(sa)

  1. an inseparable prefix expressing "junction", "conjunction", "possession" (as opposed to a privative), "similarity", "equality"
  2. when compounded with nouns to form adjectives and adverbs it may be translated by "with" , "together or along with", "accompanied by", "added to", "having", "possessing", "containing", "having the same"
    सकोप (sa-kopa) — full of anger, enraged, displeased
    साग्नि (sā*gni) — together with the fire
    सभार्य (sa-bhārya) — with a wife, having a wife
    सद्रोण (sa-droṇa) — with a droṇa added to a droṇa
    सधर्मन् (sa-dharman) — having the same duties
    सवर्ण (sa-varṇa) — having the same colour or appearance, similar, like
  3. "-ly"
    सकोपम् (sa-kopam) — angrily
    सोपधि (so*padhi) — fraudulently

References[edit]

  • Sir Monier Monier-Williams, A Sanskrit-English dictionary etymologically and philologically arranged with special reference to cognate Indo-European languages, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1898, page 1111