User:Jyril/Appendix:Finnish nominal forms

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Nominal cases[edit]

These cases can be applied to all nominal words (nouns, adjectives, pronouns, and numerals), verb participles, and to some verb infinitives.

Nominative[edit]

The uninflected form.

omena omenat

Examples:

  • Pihalla on punainen auto.
    There is a red car on the yard.

Genitive[edit]

The possessive case.

omenan omenien, omenoiden, omenoitten, omenojen, omenain

Examples:

  • Vihaisen miehen koira haukkui.
    The dog of the angry man barked.

Partitive[edit]

Marks the object of irresultative action. Also used with cardinal numbers.

omenaa omenia, omenoita, omenoja

Examples:

  • Ajan punaista autoa.
    I drive a red car.
  • Katselin humalaista miestä.
    I watched a drunken man.
  • Ammuin miestä.
    I shot (and wounded) a man.
  • Kymmenen kirjaa.
    Ten books.

Accusative[edit]

Denotes the object of action. Note that it has two forms in singular which are identical to nominative and genitive, and one plural form which is identical to nominative plural.

omena omenat
omenan

Examples:

  • Hae auto.
    Bring the car.
  • Näin humalaisen miehen.
    I saw a drunken man.
  • Ammuin miehen.
    I shot (and killed) a man.
  • Pese astiat.
    Wash the dishes.

Inessive[edit]

A locative case, denotes being inside.

omenassa omenissa

Examples:

  • Istun autossa.
    I sit in the car.
  • Maa on lumessa.
    The ground is under snow.
  • Hän oli unessa.
    She was sleeping/in sleep.
  • Olen kalastamassa.
    I am fishing.

Elative[edit]

A locative case, denotes coming out from inside.

omenasta omenista

Examples:

  • Hän otti kalkkunan uunista.
    She took the turkey from the oven.
  • Hän on peräisin Kiinasta.
    She is from China.
  • Keskustelimme kirjasta.
    We discussed about the book.
  • Kolmesta neljään.
    From three to four.
  • Omeletti tehdään munista.
    Omelette is made of eggs.
  • Tulin uimasta.
    I came from swimming.

Illative[edit]

A locative case, denotes going inside.

omenaan omeniin, omenoihin

Examples:

  • Menen taloon.
    I go (in)to the house.
  • Kolmesta neljään.
    From three to four.
  • Menkää kaikki nukkumaan nyt.
    All of you, go to sleep now.

Adessive[edit]

A locative case, denotes being near or on the object. Has multiple meanings, most important being the structure adessive + olla which corresponds English "to have".

omenalla omenilla

Examples:

  • Odotan autolla.
    I'll wait at the car.
  • Kissa on pöydällä.
    Cat is on the table.
  • Pojalla on pallo.
    Boy has a ball.
  • Minulla on nälkä.
    I am hungry. (Literally: I have hunger.)
  • Ajan autolla.
    I drive a car.
  • Tulen illalla.
    I'll come at evening.
  • Lukemalla opit.
    By reading you will learn.

Ablative[edit]

A locative case, denotes coming from near or off the object.

omenalta omenilta

Examples:

  • Tulen autolta.
    I come from the car.
  • Muutimme maalta.
    We moved from the countryside.

Allative[edit]

A locative case, denotes going near or on the object.

omenalle omenille

Examples:

  • Menen kaupungille.
    I'll go to the (down)town.
  • Kissa hyppäsi pöydälle.
    Cat jumped on the table.
  • Tietokoneelle tehtiin päivitys.
    The computer was updated.
  • Jätä hänellekin kakkua.
    Leave some cake to him, too.

Essive[edit]

Denotes being the object. When used with a noun describing time, corresponds English "on": maanantaina ~ on Monday.

omenana omenina

Examples:

  • Hän oli sairaana koko viikon.
    She was ill all the week.
  • Kauniina päivänä.
    At/In a beautiful day.

Translative[edit]

Denotes becoming the object.

omenaksi omeniksi

Examples:

  • Hän tuli hulluksi.
    He become mad.
  • Jään luoksesi yöksi.
    I'll stay at you for the night.
  • Luulin sinua murhaajaksi.
    I thought you were the murderer.
  • Sano se englanniksi.
    Say it in English.
  • Jätetään se seuraavaksi kerraksi.
    Let's leave it for the next time.

Instructive[edit]

Corresponds English "with" or "by". Relatively rare case, no singular form except jalan, by foot.

n/a omenin

Examples:

  • Haukkuvin koirin.
    With barking dogs.
  • Hän kaatui loukaten ranteensa.
    He fell hurting his wrist.

Abessive[edit]

A rare case, marks the lack of the object.

omenatta omenitta

Examples:

  • Hän lähti luvatta.
    He left without a permission.
  • Tulimme sanomatta mitään.
    We came without saying anything.

Comitative[edit]

A rare case, corresponds English "with". No singular form. Comitative noun forms are accompanied with a personal suffix.

n/a omenine-

Examples:

  • Hän tuli meluavine lapsineen.
    She came with her noisy children.

Adverbial cases[edit]

These cases can be applied only to a small number of nominal words except for prolative, which can be applied to all adjectives and cardinal numbers. The inflected forms are adverbs.

Superessive[edit]

Examples:

  • Täällä on kylmää.

Delative[edit]

Examples:

  • Sieltä näkee paremmin.

Sublative[edit]

Examples:

  • Minne hän meni?

Lative[edit]

Examples:

  • Hän muutti lähemmäs keskustaa.

Temporal[edit]

Examples:

  • Milloin tulet?

Causative[edit]

Examples:

  • Parhaiten menestyneet kilpailijat valittiin jatkoon.

Multiplicative[edit]

Examples:

  • Soitin viidesti.
  • Hän laulaa kauniisti.
  • He tappelivat leikisti.
  • Se sattui helvetisti.

Distributive[edit]

Examples:

  • Tuotteet pakataan yksittäin.
  • Siivoan päivittäin.

Temporal distributive[edit]

Examples:

  • Ohjelma tulee keskiviikkoisin.

Prolative[edit]

Examples:

  • Muinoin vesitse oli helpompaa kulkea kuin maitse.

Situative[edit]

Examples:

  • He istuivat lähekkäin.

Oppositive[edit]

Examples:

  • Juttelimme kasvotusten.