- A former province of Germany, now part of North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony; Westfalen.
former province of Germany
- Westphalia on Wikipedia.Wikipedia
- “Westphalia” in The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000.
- “Westphalia” in Dictionary.com Unabridged, v1.0.1, Lexico Publishing Group, 2006.