Wiktionary:About Greek

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What I liked about Greece was [...] the impressive force of the language itself, unconfined by dictionaries, spoken in the streets, in cafés and in the country.   (Peter Levi. The Hill of Kronos. 1980.)

This guide is intended for those editing Greek words in Wiktionary, it is a supplement to Wiktionary:Entry layout explained. All definitions are written in English, definitions in Greek can be found in the Greek Wiktionary - το Βικιλεξικό. Wiktionary uses the term Greek to refer to Modern Greek, the classical language is referred to as Ancient Greek and it has a separate About Ancient Greek guide. Modern and Ancient forms will often have different diacritical marks and therefore separate entries: as with the Ancient polytonic ὁδός (hodós) and the modern monotonic οδός (odós); but sometimes they will share the same form: as with βαθύς (vathýs) whose entry will have two language headings.

Greek is an inflected language, Wiktionary will eventually include all these forms. The main entry for each word is the lemma form - the form listed in bi-lingual dictionaries. Non-lemma entries will refer back to the lemma form. The usual lemma forms are: for nouns the nominative singular, for pronouns and adjectives the masculine, nominative singular, and for verbs the 1st person singular of the present tense

Entry structure[edit]

Every entry must consist of at least a language heading and a part of speech (POS) heading:

==Greek==
===Noun===     (the POS heading)

There is optional text above the Language heading, and three optional headings below it:

 See also         (optional matter in blue)
==Greek==
===Alternative forms===
===Etymology=== 
===Pronunciation===
===Noun===

Pre-POS headings[edit]

See also

Not a heading but a line easily seen at the top of a page, for an example see: δουλειά and δουλεία). The see also text forms a links between these confusable terms, the first means work, the second slavery. Similar entries, differing only in capitalisation, hyphenation or diacritical marks are linked in this manner.

The syntax {{also|δουλειά}} gives the output:

  See also: δουλειά
Alternative forms

This is the place to list different spellings of the same word, for example the Greek word for brother is spelt in two ways: αδελφός and αδερφός. The dated forms of Katharevousa are still in use and should also be placed here, as seen with άζωτο.

Etymology

Full guidance is given in the article (Wiktionary:Etymology). The correct etymology is not necessarily the obvious one, it is essential that reliable sources are used.

The following are given as examples, with their syntax:

From {{etyl|grc|el}} {{term|ἀδελφός||brother|lang=grc}}

     From Ancient Greek ἀδελφός (adelphós, brother)

From {{etyl|tr|el}} {{term|kahve||coffee|lang=tr}}

     From Turkish kahve (coffee)

The template {{etyl}} places the word in the appropriate derivations category such as Category:Greek terms derived from Ancient Greek.

Pronunciation

Ideally every entry should have a pronunciation heading, although with Greek there may be problems in covering the full range of regional and expatriate forms. Guides are available: Entry layout explained, Pronunciation, Appendix:Greek pronunciation and the phonetic alphabets: IPA and SAMPA.

Parts of Speech headings[edit]

The POS heading will be one of the following: Adjective, Adverb, Article, Conjunction, Determiner, Interjection, Noun, Number, Particle, Prefix, Preposition, Pronoun, Proper noun, Suffix, Verb (See also POS headers). The expected content for each POS is described below.

Adjectives[edit]

The lemma form (eg κλασικός) will contain the English translations of the word plus all relevant pre-POS and post-POS headings. Entries for non-lemma forms (eg κλασική, κλασικής …) should only contain the Pronunciation and Adjective headings, with if appropriate Alternative forms.

Headword or inflection line

This line immediately follows the POS heading. For lemma forms this should have the extended form shown here with its syntax: {{ el‑adj | tr=κλασικός | f=κλασική | n=κλασικό }}

     ζεστός (zestósm,  feminine: ζεστή (zestí), neuter: ζεστό (zestó)


Non-lemma forms use the shorter syntax: {{ el‑adj‑form | klasikís }}

     κλασικής (klasikís)

These two templates place the word in the appropriate categories: Category:Greek adjectives and Category:Greek adjective forms.

Definitions

The definitions of lemma forms should follow the example of ζεστός:

  1. warm, hot
  2. welcoming, cosy

Non-lemma forms should usually resemble those found for ζεστή using the syntax: {{ el‑form‑of‑nounadj | ζεστός | g=f | c=nom | n=s }} (where g = gender, c= case and n= number):

  1. Nominative feminine singular form of  ζεστός (zestós).
  2. Accusative feminine singular form of  ζεστός (zestós).
  3. Vocative feminine singular form of  ζεστός (zestós).
Declension table

Lemma entries should include a declension table, this table shows the inflected forms of the adjective and may include degrees of comparison. If the correct declension is unknown or time is short add the text:

====Declension====
{{rfinfl|lang=el|type=adj}}

As well as displaying appropriately the term will be placed in the category: Category:Greek adjectives needing declension. Declension table templates are listed at Wiktionary:Greek adjective inflection-table templates, the syntax {{ el‑decl‑adj|dec=ός‑ή‑ό|stem=ζεστ}} will give the output seen at ζεστός.

Categories

If the correct inflection-line template is used words will be placed in the appropriate category automatically. The appropriate categories are:

Adjectives requiring a declension table are placed in Category:Greek adjectives needing declension (see above}.



Nouns and proper nouns[edit]

The lemma form (eg αδελφός) will contain the English translations of the word plus all relevant pre-POS and post-POS headings. Entries for non-lemma forms (eg αδελφοί, αδελφών …) should only contain the Pronunciation and Noun/Proper noun headings, with if appropriate Alternative forms.

Headword or inflection line

This line immediately follows the POS heading. For lemma forms this should have the extended form shown here with its syntax:
{{ el-noun | n | προβλήματα }}

     πρόβλημα (próvliman (plural προβλήματα)


Non-lemma forms use the shorter syntax: {{ el-noun-form | n}}

     προβλήματος n (provlímatos)

These two templates place the word in the appropriate categories: Category:Greek nouns and Category:Greek noun forms.

Definitions

The definition of lemma forms should usually be the English translations of the word, just long enough to define the exact meaning of the English equivalent. The {{context}} template can be used to provide context, as in the monk translation of αδελφός, this template usually places the word in an appropriate category in this case Religion.

Non-lemma forms should usually resemble that found for αδελφοί using the syntax: {{ el-form-of-nounadj | αδελφός | c=nom | n=p }}

  1. Nominative plural form of  αδελφός (adelfós).


Declension table

Lemma entries should include a declension table, this table shows the inflected forms of the noun. If the correct declension is unknown or time is short add the text:

====Declension====
{{rfinfl|lang=el|type=noun}}

As well as displaying appropriately the term will be placed in the category: Category:Greek nouns needing inflection. There is a list of templates on the page Wiktionary:Greek noun inflection-table templates.

The syntax {{ {{el-nM-ος-οι-1 | αδελφ}} }} will give the output seen at αδελφός.

Katharevousa

Some Katharevousa forms are still in common use. Reference should be made in the Note section of the declension table, see: συντελεστής and λαιμός. Examples of entries can be see at συντελεστού and λαιμόν. Alternatively these forms may be placed under the Related terms heading.

Categories

If the correct inflection-line template is used words will be placed in the appropriate category automatically. The appropriate categories are:

Nouns requiring a declension table are placed in Category:Greek nouns needing inflection (see above}.



Verbs[edit]

The lemma form (eg γράφω) will contain the English translations of the word plus all relevant pre-POS and post-POS headings. Entries for non-lemma forms (eg έγραψε …) should only contain the Pronunciation and Verb headings, with if appropriate Alternative forms.

Verbs in the passive voice (eg γράφομαι) are should be treated as separate words and given a full lemma entry. They should be placed in the categories Category:Greek passive verbs and Category:Greek deponent verbs.

Headword or inflection line

This line immediately follows the POS heading. For lemma forms this should have the extended form shown here with its syntax: {{ el-verb | gráfo | έγραψα | égrapsa }}

     γράφω (gráfo)   simple past: έγραψα (égrapsa)


Non-lemma forms use the shorter syntax: {{ el-verb-form | égrapsa }}

      έγραψα (égrapsa)

These two templates place words in the appropriate categories: Category:Greek verbs and Category:Greek verb forms. Note that passive verbs will have to be added manually to the categories Category:Greek passive verbs and Category:Greek deponent verbs.

Definitions

The definition of the lemma of a verb will usually resemble that for γράφω:

  1. I write; and thus I say, I draw etc.


Each definition of a non-lemma inflected form should usually resemble that found for έγραψε:

  1. 3rd person singular of the past perfective of the verb γράφω


Conjugation table

Lemma entries should include a conjugation table, this table shows the complete conjugation of the verb, including the indicative, subjunctive and imperative with the imperfective and perfective stems. If the correct conjugation is unknown or time is short add the text:

====Conjugation====
{{rfinfl|lang=el|type=verb}}

As well as displaying appropriately the term will be placed in the category: Category:Greek verbs needing conjugation.

Conjugation templates for most regular verbs in the active voice are available, and for some regular verbs in the passive voice.

An example for νυστάζω:

See Category:Greek verb inflection-table templates, for more on their use. Additionally, each individual template contains a description of the arguments required and of the class of verbs it covers. Care should be taken to ensure that the right template is chosen.

Categories

Verbs should be added to the Category:Greek verbs.



Other inflected parts of speech[edit]

Adverbs[edit]

Adverbs are not inflected, but have degrees of comparison. Initial entries may use the simple inflection line but when the forms of the degrees of comparison are known they should be entered as shown for βαθιά:

  βαθιά (vathiá)   Comparative: βαθύτερα   Absolute superlative: βαθύτατα

All should be in the Category:Greek adverbs

Articles[edit]

Each entry for a definite article (οριστικό άρθρο) or an indefinite article (αόριστο άρθρο) should contain a declension table showing all the inflections. Some examples may be seen at: ο, μια, etc. Each definite and indefinite article should be in the category Category:Greek articles.

Pronouns and Determiners[edit]

The use of the term Determiner is currently under active debate , see Wiktionary:Beer parlour#Determiner_vs_Determinative
Each article should contain a definition with a link to the appropriate appendix where the inflection tables are located:

for pronouns Appendix:Greek pronouns
for determiners Appendix:Greek determiners

Examples may be seen at εγώ, αυτό, etc. Each should be in the appropriate category: Category:Greek pronouns or Category:Greek determiners.


Non-inflected parts of speech[edit]

Prefixes and suffixes[edit]

The templates {{el-suffix}} and {{el-prefix}} should be used to create the inflection lines for affixes. These templates will put the entry in the appropriate category (Category:Greek prefixes and Category:Greek suffixes).

Others[edit]

Other parts of speech should have a simple inflection line with the word in bold followed by its romanisation, which can be achieved using the template {{head}}.

They should be placed in one of the following categories:


Other headings within the POS section[edit]

If a See also section is present it should appear at the very top of the page where it will be easily seen by a user who has mistyped, or is uncertain of the spelling of, a search term. It is not a heading and uses the template {{also}}, providing links to words of different meaning but similar spelling. Although words of similar etymology, such as δουλειά (work) and δουλεία (slavery) could appear here, they are more correctly listed under Related terms.

Related terms[edit]

Greek translations for English words[edit]

Greek words will also be found in the Translations sections of English words. An abbreviated table from the entry for example is shown below:


The template {{t}} should be used, it speeds up entry and will enable any later, global changes in format to be made.

The syntax below will give the output in grey which follows:

{{t|el|παράδειγμα|n|tr=parádeigma|sc=Grek}}
Greek: παράδειγμα n (parádeigma)

The template is explained at Template_talk:t, it has the following arguments:

  1. el – the code for Greek
  2. παράδειγμα – the word
  3. n – the gender: f, m, n, c, mf
  4. (optional) s – the number: s for singular, or p for plural
  5. (optional) tr=parádeigma the romanised form of the word with the prefix tr= (this is a named argument).
  6. (optional) sc=Grek helps some browsers by warning them of the Greek script.

The superscript (el)   provides a link to το Βικιλεξικό and to the relevant word should it exist, and παράδειγμα links to the entry for the Greek word in the English Wiktionary.


Transliteration (Romanization)[edit]

see also: Wiktionary:Greek transliteration

Transliteration or Romanization is a (usually systematic) respelling of a word in Roman/Latin characters, it is intended for those who cannot read foreign alphabets or who lack the necessary fonts. It is not intended to provide a phonetic representation, help in the pronunciation of a word should be placed in the Pronunciation section.

The transliteration of Greek words into romanised forms should appear, in parentheses in the following locations:

  • Headword lines, for example:
  πρόβλημα (próvlima) f     pluralπροβλήματα (provlímata)
  • Translation sections, for example:
  Greek: παράδειγμα n (parádeigma) (paráthigma)

Greek transliterations (that is, romanizations) are not Greek words and should not be created as entries. However, some of these romanizations will turn out to be words in other languages, often derived from Greek or Ancient Greek. Thus there is an English entry Katharevousa but not for zestó, the romanisation of the adjective form ζεστό, which is not used in any Latin-script languages.

There is a table of equivalent forms which should be used to identify the equivalent forms used in Wiktionary. Since in some cases (e.g. ο & ω; and η, ι, οι, υ & υι) more than one Greek form equates to one Roman one the process is not reversible. The Roman equivalent was chosen from establised sources and in line with Wiktionary's draft policy.

Stressed vowels should be indicated by the appropriately acute accented Roman one (e.g.: á é í ó ú). Letters with a diaeresis (umlaut) should also get one (ï or ü). There are two exceptions:

  1. With vowel combinations αυ, ευ (and very rarely ηυ) the stress moves from the υ, which becomes v or f, to the preceding vowel. Thus αύáf.
  2. When the stress and diaeresis appear together, ΐ, the simple í will suffice.

Miscellaneous[edit]

Forms of Greek[edit]

Wikipedia has a complete history of the Greek language. In Wiktionary there are currently three divisions of the Greek language: Greek, Ancient Greek, and Mycenaean.

A simple outline of the names used follows; because language changes slowly all dates are approximate, as is illustrated by the differences between various sources.

  • Classical Greek, sometimes synonymous with Ancient Greek, often refers to the language of Greek classical literature (600-300 BC).
  • Koine is combined within Ancient Greek in Wiktionary.
  • Koine (Hellenistic or New Testament Greek) – the common (hence Koine) language of the eastern Mediterranean Greek, of Alexander the Great and the New Testament of the Christian Bible), used from say 300 BC until AD 300.
  • Medieval or Byzantine Greek in use from about A.D. 325 until 1453.
  • Katharevousa – the classically based artificial Greek language created at the start of Greece's independence from the Ottoman Empire and used for formal and official purposes until 1976.
  • Demotic Greek – the vernacular language which began to develop as early as the 11th century A.D. It became the official language of Greece in 1976.
  • Modern Greek – generally: the Greek language since the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453. More specifically: the standardised form of Demotic Greek, also referred to as Standard Modern Greek. It has been taught in Greek schools since 1977 and is spoken in Greece, Cyprus and by expatriates elsewhere.

Writing Greek[edit]

Wikipedia has a section on the Greek alphabet, Modern Greek uses the monotonic system with a single stress accent in nearly every word of more than one syllable; in contrast the polytonic system used for Ancient Greek entries has multiple diacritical marks. Accents are not used in abbreviations (e.g. ΕΣΣΔ) and words written in upper case such as ΗΛΙΟ (cf ήλιο); in contrast, words that begin with a vowel which is stressed should carry an accent (e.g. Έλληνας). Greek numerals use the usual Greek alphabet together with three extra symbols ϛ  ϟ  ϡ.


For Windows users[edit]

Your windows Help should provide information (Searchword = language). Wazu Japan has a web site where you can check whether your browser is displaying all the Greek characters and provides downloads of necessary fonts. Wikipedia has an article on the Greek keyboard layout.

You may need to set up your PC to write and display Greek:

  1. Click the on screen Start menu button and select Control panel (on some menus you may have to click Settings to be offered this option).
  2. Choose the Regional and Language Options icon.
  3. Choose the Languages tab and click Details button.
  4. Choose the Settings tab and click Add button under Installed Services.
  5. Select Greek on the dropdown menu.
  6. Click the Language bar and Key settings to choose your preferences under those headings.
Greek keyboard layout

A Greek keyboard utility is available, the Microsoft Visual Keyboard can be downloaded, or searched for. This provides a large on-screen indication of which alphabet is active on a PC and the layout of the keyboard.

Other guidance is available:

Reference[edit]

Books[edit]

  • Holton D, Mackridge P and Philippaki-Warburton I. Greek: a comprehensive grammar of the modern language. London: Routledge (1997).
  • Triandaphyllidis M A (trans. Burke J N). Concise Modern Greek Grammar. Thessaloniki: Institute of Modern Greek Studies (2004).

Wikipedia[edit]

Web[edit]