zvērs

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Latvian[edit]

Zvēri

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Baltic *žwēras (perhaps Proto-Balto-Slavic *źwēris), from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰwer-os (wild animal), which may come from the stem *gʰē-, *ǵʰē- (to yawn; to open one's jaws), which would suggest as the original meaning “one that opens its jaws (as if to bite, to attack).” Cognates include Lithuanian žvėris, Old Prussian swirins ([zwirins]) (accusative plural), Sudovian wirza ([vīrza] may be a metathesis of [zvīra]), Proto-Slavic *zvěrь (Old Church Slavonic звѣрь (zvěrĭ), Russian зверь (zverʹ), Belarusian звер (zvjer), Ukrainian звір (zvir), Bulgarian звяр (zvjar), Czech zvěř, Polish zwierz), Ancient Greek θήρ (thḗr) (Eolic dialect φήρ (phḗr)), Latin ferus, fera “beast; wild, savage.”[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

zvērs m (1st declension)

  1. beast, (wild) animal (usually a mammal)
    kažokādu zvēri — fur animals
    plēsīgie zvēribeasts of prey
    zvēru pēdas mežāanimal footprints, trails in the forest
    zvēru ādasanimal furs
    medīt zvērus — to hunt (wild) animals
    zvēru dārzs — zoo (lit. (wild) animal garden)
    zvēru ķēniņš — the king of beasts (= the lion)
    pirmā sastapšanas ar polāro vilku, pašu dižāko šīs sugas zvēru, notika negaidīti — the first encounter with the polar wolf, the largest beast of this species, happened unexpectedly
    meža zvēri līdz šim vēl nav iemanījušies attaisīt arī tāpat vien aizvērtas durvis — forest animals have not so far found a way to open closed doors just like that
  2. (of people) beast (a particularly evil, heartless, ruthless person)
    tas tak ir īsts zvērs, kurš nepiedod nevienam ne mazākā pārkāpuma! — but that one (guy) is a real beast who does not forgive anyone even the slightest offense
    Juļus... neesi zvērs... te tu mani nobendēsi... laid! — Juļus... don't be a beast'... you will kill me here... let go!
  3. (in the genitive, used adjectivally) very big; extraordinary
    gandrīz visiem, izņemot galda saimnieci, ir zvēra apetīte — almost everyone, except the hostess, has a big (lit. a beast's) appetite
    bet vispirms gan vajag iedzert pa tasei tējas, ārā būs zvēra aukstums — but first of all (we) have to drink a cup of tea each, outside it will be very (lit. a beast's) cold

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “zvērs” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7