The ethnonym is homophonous with φοῖνιξ (phoînix), the Greek name of Tyrian purple. There has been some debate as to whether the ethnonym was derived from the name of the dye or vice versa. While it seems in any case likely that both are influenced by the genuinely Greek adjective φοινός (phoinós, “blood-red”), the ethnonym goes is recorded already in Mycenean as 𐀡𐀛𐀑𐀍 (po-ni-ki-jo), and is apparently a borrowing from Egyptian fnḫw (fenkhu), a term for "Asiatics, Semites".
- Phoenix, a city on the Mediterranean Sea.
- Inflection is the same for both noun and proper noun.
|Case / #||Singular||Dual||Plural|
|Nominative||ὁ, ἡ Φοῖνῐξ||τὼ Φοίνῑκε||οἱ, αἱ Φοίνῑκες|
|Genitive||τοῦ, τῆς Φοίνῑκος||τοῖν Φοινῑ́κοιν||τῶν Φοινῑ́κων|
|Dative||τῷ, τῇ Φοίνῑκῐ||τοῖν Φοινῑ́κοιν||τοῖς, ταῖς Φοίνῑξῐ|
|Accusative||τὸν, τὴν Φοίνῑκᾰ||τὼ Φοίνῑκε||τοὺς, τᾱ̀ς Φοίνῑκᾰς|
|Notes:||This table gives Attic inflectional endings. For declension in other dialects, see Appendix:Ancient Greek dialectal declension.|
- Φοῖνιξ in Liddell & Scott (1940) A Greek–English Lexicon, Oxford: Clarendon Press
- Φοῖνιξ in Liddell & Scott (1889) An Intermediate Greek–English Lexicon, New York: Harper & Brothers
- Φοῖνιξ in Autenrieth, Georg (1891) A Homeric Dictionary for Schools and Colleges, New York: Harper and Brothers
- Bauer, Walter et al. (2001) A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, Third edition, Chicago: University of Chicago Press
- Φοῖνιξ in Slater, William J. (1969) Lexicon to Pindar, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter
- “G5405”, in Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance to the Bible, 1979
- Woodhouse, S. C. (1910) English–Greek Dictionary: A Vocabulary of the Attic Language, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Limited, page 1,022