All nouns in Czech have four grammatical components: case, number, gender, and declension.
There are seven cases:
- nominative case
- genitive case
- dative case
- accusative case
- vocative case
- locative case
- instrumental case
Czech nouns have three genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter. The gender of a noun correlates with the ending of the nominative form, but is not uniquely determined by it. For instance, předseda is masculine, while beseda is feminine; host is masculine, while kost is feminine.
Many of the nominative forms of masculine nouns end with a consonant, as in the inflection patterns pán, hrad, muž, and stroj, but some end with a vowel, as in the inflection patterns předseda, and soudce.
The endings of nominative forms of feminine nouns can be seen in inflection patterns žena, růže, píseň, and kost.
The endings of nominative forms of neuter nouns can be seen in inflection patterns město, moře, kuře, and stavení.