Appendix:Glossary of grammar

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This is a glossary of grammar.

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Grammatical quality of a verb which determines the relationship of the speaker to the internal temporal flow of the event the verb describes; whether the speaker views the event from outside as a whole, or from within as it is unfolding.
auxiliary verb 
A verb that accompanies the main verb in a clause in order to make distinctions in tense, mood, voice or aspect.


An expression of an agent causing or forcing a patient to perform an action (or to be in a certain condition).
A word or group of words ordinarily consisting of a subject and a predicate; in some languages and types of clauses, the subject may not appear explicitly; one clause may be coordinated with or embedded in another within a single sentence.
A word or group of words that completes a grammatical construction in the predicate and that describes or is identified with the subject or object.
Any word or group of words used to complete a grammatical construction, typically in the predicate, including adverbials, infinitives, and sometimes objects.
A word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (usually a subject complement or an adverbial); it serves to unite (or associate) the subject with the predicate. (e.g. be).


dangling modifier 
A word or clause that modifies another word or clause ambiguously, possibly causing confusion with regard to the speaker's intended meaning.


Serving to express the frequent repetition of an action.


Expressive of an action that is repeated with frequency.


A word, phrase, or clause that limits or qualifies the sense of another word or phrase.
A verb form that depends on how its containing clause relates to the speaker’s or writer’s wish, intent, or assertion about reality.


The noun phrase which is an internal complement of a verb phrase or a prepositional phrase. In a verb phrase with a transitive action verb, it is typically the receiver of the action.


phrasal verb 
A phrase consisting of a verb and either or both a preposition or adverb, that has idiomatic meaning.
A member of a closed class of non-inflecting words typically employed to connect a noun or a pronoun, in an adjectival or adverbial sense, with some other word; a particle used with a noun or pronoun (in English always in the objective case) to make a phrase limiting some other word; — so called because it is usually placed before the word with which it is phrased; as, a bridge of iron; he comes from town; it is good for food; he escaped by running. Prepositions are a heterogeneous class of words in some languages, with fuzzy boundaries that tend to overlap with other categories (like adverbs, adjectives, and conjunctions).
prepositional phrase 
A phrase that has both a preposition and its object or complement; may be used as an adjunct or a modifier.


A word or phrase, such as an adjective or adverb, that describes or characterizes another word or phrase, such as a noun or verb; a modifier; that adds or subtracts attributes to another.


In a clause: the word or word group (usually a noun phrase) that is dealt with. In active clauses with verbs denoting an action, the subject and the actor are usually the same.

See also[edit]