Gerunds are formed by the addition of -andī, -andō, -andum to the stem first-conjugation verbs, or by the addition of -endī, -endō, -endum to the stem of verb in other conjugations. Deponent verbs form their gerunds in the same manner as other verbs.
Some common irregular verbs, such as eō (“go”) and faciō (“do, make”) have gerunds in -undum, and this older form occasionally appears in the gerunds of other verbs of the third and fourth conjugations.
Gerunds are always neuter in gender.
|Nominative||( audīre )1||Audīre gaudium est.||Hearing is a joy.|
|Genitive||audiendī||gaudium audiendī||the joy of hearing|
|Dative||audiendō||Studuit audiendō.||He devoted (himself) to hearing.|
|Accusative||audiendum, ( audīre )2||parātus ad audiendum||ready for hearing|
|Ablative||audiendō||poetās audiendō||by listening to poets|
- 1 Gerunds have no nominative form; the present active infinitive form of the verb is used in these situations.
- 2 The accusative form of the gerund is used only following a preposition governing the accusative. Otherwise, the present active infinitive of the verb is used in place of the gerund.
The gerund is typically used without an object in Latin. When an object of the gerund is included, the gerundive is used in place of the gerund and given an ending that agrees with the object noun.