Related to *wōdaz (“raging”). From a pre-Germanic *Wātónos.
This suggests a variation of the theonym in early Germanic, *Wōdanaz vs. *Wōdinaz. The form with -i- appears to have been present in Scandinavia and Frisia. The situation in Old English is unclear. The attested Old English forms point to *Wōdanaz, but i-umlauted forms surface in records after the end of the Old English period. Thus, wōdnesdæġ is replaced by continuations of *wēdnesdæġ around AD 1200. The same transition to the umlauted form of the theonym during the 12th or early 13th century (early Middle English) is also found in English placenames, such as Wensley (Wednesleg ca. 1212, earlier Wodnesleie; Wednesbury (Wednesbiri 1227, earlier Wadnesberie, Wodnesberia), Wednesfield (Wednesfeld 1251, earlier Wodnesfelde).
- Old English: Wōden
- English: Woden
- Old Frisian: Wēda
- Old Saxon: Wōdan
- Old Dutch: *wuodan (preserved in modern Dutch woensdag, from *Wōdanas dagaz)
- Old High German: Wōtan, Wuotan
- German: Wotan
- Old Norse Óðinn