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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Compare Tocharian A/B (not, no), not a prohibitive particle. According to Martirosyan, if the word originally meant ‘not’ and later obtained the function of the prohibitive, we are dealing with an Armeno-Greek-Albanian-Indo-Iranian grammatical isogloss.



  1. prohibitive particle

See also[edit]


  • Albanian: mo, mos
  • Ancient Greek: μή (mḗ)
  • Armenian:
    • Old Armenian: մի (mi)
    • > Urartian: [script needed] (me(i))
  • Indo-Iranian: *mā < *meH (see there for further descendants)
    • Indo-Aryan:
    • Iranian: *mā
      • Avestan: 𐬁𐬨 ()
      • Kurdish:
        Central Kurdish: مە- (ma-)
      • Persian: م_ (ma-)
  • Messapic: [script needed] (ma, not)


  • Martirosyan, Hrach (2010) Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 8), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 468f
  • Martirosyan, Hrach (2013), “The place of Armenian in the Indo-European language family: the relationship with Greek and Indo-Iranian”, in Journal of Language Relationship[1], issue 10, § 3.4, page 91
  • Abajev, V. I. (1973), “ma”, in Istoriko-etimologičeskij slovarʹ osetinskovo jazyka [Historical-Etymological Dictionary of the Ossetian Language] (in Russian), volume II, Moscow, Leningrad: USSR Academy of Sciences, page 60f