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This Proto-Uralic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.




  1. fish


  • Samoyedic: *kålä
    • Nganasan: колы
    • Enets:
    • Nenets:
    • Selkup: ӄәлы (qëly)
    • Kamassian: [script needed] (kʰōla)
    • Mator: [script needed] (kalä)
  • Ugric:
    • Hungarian: hal
    • Khanty:
      • Northern, Eastern: хул (xul)
      • Southern: [script needed] (xuť)
    • Mansi:
      • Northern, Eastern: хул (xūl)
      • Western: [script needed] (kul)
      • Southern: [script needed] (kōl)
  • Mari: кол (kol)
  • Mordvinic:
  • Samic: *kuolē (see there for further descendants)
  • Finnic: *kala (see there for further descendants)


  • Häkkinen, Kaisa (2013). Nykysuomen etymologinen sanakirja. Helsinki: Sanoma Pro OY. ISBN 978-952-63-1686-4.
  • Rédei, Károly (1986–88) Uralisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Uralic Etymological Dictionary] (in German), Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó
  • Sammallahti, Pekka. 1988. "Historical phonology of the Uralic languages, with special reference to Samoyed, Ugric and Permic". In Sinor, Denis (ed.), The Uralic Languages: Description, History and Foreign Influences, pp. 478–554. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-07741-6.

External links[edit]

  • Entry #228 in Uralonet, online Uralic etymological database of the Research Institute for Linguistics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.