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English citations of India red, Indian red, and Indian-red
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- 1672, William Salmon, Polygraphice; or the Art of Drawing, Engraving, &c., p 178:
- V. For a sad Red. Take Indian Red [. . .]
- 1685, William Salmon, Polygraphice, or the Arts of Drawing Engraving, Etching, Limning, Painting, Washing, Varnishing, Gilding, Colouring, Dying, Beautifying and Perfuming, London: T. Passenger and T. Sawbridge:
- [p 98] III. The chief Reds are these, Carmine, Vermilion, Red-lead, Indian-lake, native Cinnabar, Red-Oker, Yellow-Oker burnt, Indian Red.
- [p 104] XXXII. Indian Red. It makes a dark Red, because this colour is very course, you may use Umber, and a little Lake tempered, which is as good.
- [p 113] II. The chief Colours to be ground are these; White-lead, Ceruse, Cinnaber-lake, Oker yellow and brown, Pink, Indico, Umber, Colens Earth, Spanish-brown, Ivory-black, Cherrystone-black, Lamp-black, Indian-Red, Indian-Lake.
- [p 187] V. For a saf Red. Take Indian Red heightened with White.
- 1753, Ephraim Chambers, Supplement to Mr. Chambers' Cyclopaedia, s.v. Red:
- Indian Red, a name used by the colourmen and painters for a kind of purple ochre, brought from the island of Ormus in the Persian gulf.
- 1776, Samuel Ward, A Modern System of Natural History, v 11, London: F. Newbery, p 28:
- India red is a fine purple earth, of a firm, compact, and hard texture, it being heavy, and almost as hard as stone. Before it is dug up it is of a blood colour, but when dry of a fine glowing red, and is full of bright glittering particles of a whitish colour.
- 1810, William Oran, Precepts and Observations on the Art of Colouring in Landscape Painting, London: Charles Clarke, p 61:
- Trees which are about five or six times as far, particularly in autumn, appear of a warm brow reddish colour in their lights, and of an Indian red purplish colour in their shades.
- 1827, J. Bell, Belle Assemblée: Or, Court and Fashionable Magazine; Containing Interesting and Original Literature, and Records of the Beau-Monde, p 310:
- An Indian red scarf of Chinese crape, embroidered all over in the same colour.
- 1847, Andrew Ure, A dictionary of Arts, Manufactures and Mines: A Clear Exposition of their Principles and Practice, New York: Appleton, p 1038, s.v. Printing Ink:
- 6. Indigo alone, or with an equal weight of Prussian blue, added in small proportion, takes off the brown tone of certain lamp black inks. Mr. Savage recommends a little Indian red to be ground in with the indigo and Prussian blue, to give a rich tone to the black ink.
- 1849, Annual report of the Commissioner of the General Land Office to the Secretary of the Interior, United States General Land Office, p 874:
- Westerly from Sleeping river, rock of a deep brown or Indian-red color composes the coast, the texture of which is somewhat more indurated than the other sandrock; and this, as well as the brown sandrock of the coast in the portion of the district west from the Ontonagan, is capable of furnishing much very durable material for building purposes.
- 1863, House Documents, Otherwise Publ. as Executive Documents, United States. Congress. House:
- [p 834] 20 pounds Indian red ... 10 per pound.
- [p 856] 25 pounds Indian red paint ... 01 per pound
- 1867, Andrew Ure and Robert Hunt, A dictionary of Arts, Manufactures and Mines: A Clear Exposition of their Principles and Practice, 6th ed., v 2, London: Longmans, Greene, and Co., p 654, s.v. Indian Red:
- INDIAN RED. A mineral from the Persian Gulf, which reaches us in a state of a dark red coarse powder: a silicate of iron and alumina, containing lime and magnesia. The same name is given to a pigment artificially prepared, which is essentially a sesquioxide of iron.
- 1870, Alfred R.C. Selwyn, Report of Progress from 1866 to 1869, Montreal: Geological Survey of Canada, p 60:
- 5. Mottled Indian-red and light yellow sandstones tinged with brown; the predominating colour is Indian-red, the yellow portions being usually only from a quarter to a half inch in diameter, and sometimes assuming a greenish tinge.
- 1901, George H Hurst, Dictionary of chemicals and raw products used in the manufacture of paints, colours, varnishes and allied preparations, London: Scott, Greenwood and Co., pp 181–83, s.v. Indian red:
- INDIAN RED is the name originally given to a dark red pigment consisting chiefly of oxide of iron found in India. The name has now come to be applied to dark red pigments prepared from ochres, waste iron liquors, ferrous sulphate, etc., in various ways. From ochre and ferrous sulphate it is made by heating, or, as it is termed calcining, it at a considerable heat until the desired shade is obtained. From waste iron liquors the pigment is made by precipitation with lime and calcining the precipitate so obtained.
- The composition of Indian red will, of course, vary with the source from which it is derived. The following are some analyses of such reds made by the author:—
- 1. Natural Indian Red. [. . .]
- 2. Indian Red, Manufactured. [. . .]
- 3. Indian Red made from Ochre. [. . .]
- These three analyses will serve to show that Indian reds have no definite chemical composition. Beyond the fact that the essential constituent is ferric oxide no standard of composition can be laid down for Indian red. Usually the more ferric oxide the pigment contains the stronger is it in colouring power, and often in covering power also. This is most important to the painter, for Indian red is mostly used as a staining colour, and, therefore, the greater the colouring power the better is the sample for use in painting.
- Seeing that the chemical composition of Indian red is of no moment as a criterion of its quality, it will rarely be necessary to make a chemical examination of a sample of Indian red; [. . .] Indian reds should be examined for strength of colouring power, covering power, etc. [. . .]
- When used as a pigment Indian red possesses most valuable properties. It works well in either oil or water, and possesses good covering powers, although this will naturally vary in different samples. It is perfectly permanent, and may be ranked among the most permanent pigments known. It is quite neutral in its properties, and may be mixed with all other pigments without producing any change in them.
- 1919, Arthur Seymour Jennings, Paints and varnishes, with special reference to their properties and uses, London : I. Pitman & Sons, p 29:
- Indian Red (Sp. gr. 4.732).—An exceedingly useful colour, being quite permanent when exposed to light, and mixing readily with any other pigment without being affected. Most of the indian red now sold is prepared artificially from copperous or ferrous sulphate. This, on being exposed to a high temperature, is decomposed and yields an Indian red which contains, in the best varieties, as much as 96 per cent. of ferric oxide. Lower grades contain from 43 per cent. up. Artificial Indian red is made from haematite, which is practically pure oxide of iron; this is crushed and levigated, and gives a beautiful deep red colour, having a purple hue. There are many different varieties of colours in Indian red depending upon the process of manufacture. This pigment may be used by itself or may be mixed with white barytes, etc., without losing much of its good qualities.
- 1935, George Francis Dow, Every Day Life in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, Boston: Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities, pp 22–23:
- In point of fact, however, red earth was brought from the East Indies long before the settlement of the American Colonies, hence the name “India red,” by which it was advertised in the Boston newspapers in the mid-eighteenth century. [. . .] It is an established fact that the Andrews house, built in 1707–1710, in the country town of Topsfield, Mass., was painted Indian red at the time it was built, or soon after, but only on the trim—the window frames, corner boards, etc.
- 1952, Ernest Frank Carter, Britain's Railway Liveries: Colours, Crests and Linings, 1825–1948, London: Burke, p 207:
- The fenders were green and panelled on their extreme outside by an Indian red line of fair thickness, this being followed by a fine black line.
- 1969, Popular Science, v 194, n 6 (June), p 154:
- Medium-dark mahogany finish: Mix two ounces of lampblack colorant and six ounces of Indian red colorant into one gallon Deep Finish Firzite—or one teaspoon of lampblack and three teaspoons of Indian red to one pint Firzite.