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English citations of háček

  • 1948, Bohumil Emil Mikula, Progressive Czech (Bohemian) (Chicago: Czechoslovak National Council of America), page 6
    The caret (ˇ), háček, is used over the following consonants: c, d, n, t, r, s, and z to indicate the soft sound. The caret (ˇ) is also used over the vowel e (See Pronunciation II, b, p, v).
  • 1951, Hans Jakob Polotsky, Notes on Gurage Grammar (Oriental Notes and Studies, № 2; Jerusalem: Israel Oriental Society), page 5
    For the latter reason linguistic forms had to be set in ordinary roman type and the capital C of Cäxa had to be left without a háček.
  • 1956, Morris Halle [compil., ed.], For Roman Jakobson: Essays on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday, 11 October 1956 (Mouton), page 332
    Furthermore, good Teutonic Kitsch looks rather forlorn and out of place wearing a Bohemian háček over its shrunken hind quarters. But the high traditions of scholarship must be maintained, and on these pages Meester Kitsch will masquerade as Mr. Kič.³
  • 1958, International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, The Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature (International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature), volume unknown, page 962
    The Polish “cz”, a combination of consonants unknown in Latin, like Czečh “c” (c with a háček) is pronounced like the soft English “ch” in “cheese”, a sound not used by the Romans but possible in the “English” pronunciation of Latin.
  • 1967 July, The Bodleian Library Record VIII:i, page 3:
    Its keyboard includes a fair selection of the diacritical marks needed for cataloguing: the acute, grave, and circumflex accents, the cedilla, diæresis, short-sign, tilde, haček, and superscript circle.
  • 1970, Visible Language (Cleveland Museum of Art), volume 4, page 322
    The German form Asch is obviously preferable to a háček-less As.
  • 1970, Milan Šára, Jitka Šárová, and Antonín Bytel, Čeština pro cizince: Czech for English-speaking students (SPN, t. Svoboda 4), page 31
    The sign () in š, ž, č, ř, etc. is called háček.
  • 1977, Folia Slavica (Slavica Publishers), volumes 1–2, page 82
    Unsystematic use of diacritics (the háček (ˇ), čárka (´), tečka (˙)) marks the Strahov copy (hereafter Tₛ) as no earlier than mid-15th century.
  • 1984, Edward Stankiewicz, Grammars and Dictionaries of the Slavic Languages from the Middle Ages up to 1850 (Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, ISBN 3110097788, “West Slavic”: ‘Czech Grammars’, page 3⁽¹⁾ and ‘Czech Dictionaries’, page 16⁽²⁾
    ⁽¹⁾ Hus, Jan, De Orthographia Bohemica, MS, ca. 1410.
      Pathbreaking treatise on Czech orthography that became in time a model (with various modifications) for all non-Orthodox Slavs. Hus replaced the medieval system of digraphs with one of diacritics, among which the dot (later replaced by a háček) marked the palatals , , , ċ, ż, and l̇ ( = ł) and an acute accent (čárka) the long vowels á, ó, ú, í, . Hus’ distinction of i / y and l / ł was being lost even in his own time.
    ⁽²⁾ [Anon.], Dictionarius trium linguarum latine, teutonice, bohemice potiora vocabula continens: peregrinantibus apprime utilis, Vienna, 1513.
      A dictionary of ca. 1 500 nouns arranged by subject matter, and a list of numerals. Some entries betray Central Czech origin. The orthography is inconsistent (the háček is used only for ž), and vowel length is not indicated. An expanded edition including Italian and French equivalents appeared in 1531.
  • 1988, Alexander M. Schenker [ed.], American Contributions to the Tenth International Congress of Slavists, Sofia, September 1988: Linguistics (Slavica; ISBN 0893571903, 9780893571900), page 91
    In Late Common Slavic the environment before [j] was, with few exceptions, a position of neutralization for tense diffuse vowels /i, y/ and lax diffuse vowels /ь, ъ/. The nongrave vowels /i, ь/ were realized as [ɪ]; grave vowels /y, ъ/ were realized as [y̌], the háček here denoting a degree of intensity lower than that for /i, y/ and higher than that for /ь, ъ/.
  • 1989, Wilbur Richard Knorr, Textual Studies in Ancient and Medieval Geometry, page xiii
    For Arabic words in Part II, I follow the transliteration system of Wehr and Cowan, Arabic–English Dictionary, 3rd ed., save that for certain letters with inconvenient diacritical markings (specifically, those with underbars: , , , and with háček: š) I usually prefer the alternative forms with h (that is, kh, th, dh, sh).
  • 2000, Jarda Cervenka, Revenge of Underwater Man and other stories (University of Notre Dame Press; ISBN 0268040001, 9780268040000), page 28
    “It should be Čermák, with a háček above the C and a čárka above the a, long a. Shouldn’t it be?”
  • 2002, Torbjörn Lundmark, Quirky QWERTY: the story of the keyboard @ your fingertips (UNSW Press), “~ to ^ — Diacritics: add-ons to the alphabet”, ‘Some Special Uses in Pinyin Chinese’, page 34
    macron used to signify the first tone ( — ‘house’)
    acute accent used to signify the second tone ( — ‘none’)
    háček used to signify the third tone ( — ‘five’)
    grave accent used to signify the fourth tone ( — ‘fog’)
  • 2002, Camille Sándorfy [ed.], Role of Ryberg States in Spectroscopy and Photochemistry, Part II: “High Rydberg Spectroscopy”, essay 11: James K.G. Watson, ‘Rotation-Electronic Coupling in Diatomic Rydberg States’, § 6.1: «Spherical Tensor Operators», page 309
    Here a háček (ˇ) is used to distinguish operator indices from the quantum numbers of wavefunctions.
  • 2004, Alan Timberlake, A Reference Grammar of Russian, § 1.3.7: “Transliteration”, page 24
    The linguistic system uses diacritics in preference to diagraphs for unusual consonant letters, for example «ч» is transliterated as «č», using the Czech háček.
  • 2005, Ari Rafaeli, Book Typography (Oak Knoll Press; ISBN 1584561572, 9781584561576), pages 60⁽¹⁾ and 76⁽²⁾
    ⁽¹⁾ Robert Bringhurst is a fancier of accents, diacritics, foreign characters, tribal runes. On the paper cover of the second edition, between the title and the author, there’s a line of bright red a’s accented acutely, gravely, brevely, circumflexedly, and with háček, trema or umlaut, ring, tilde, ogonek attached aduncously, ogonek with acute overhead, and bang in the middle a bright red æsc. There’s also a lower-case eth, a thorn, a kreska ukośna and a cedilla.
    ⁽²⁾ We note that some writers say that the háček is not or should not be ‘an inverted circumflex’ (though it is called that by Robert Bringhurst) but that it is a unique mark with its own principles of shape, height, angle, etc., and the háček used in this text is therefore unsatisfactory.
  • 2006, Claire Kilroy, Tenderwire (Faber), page 32
    Kryštof had two things going for him which automatically distinguished him as my superior in Estelle’s book; firstly, that he was male, and secondly, that his name had a háček in it. This made him her grandson, or something.
  • 2008, Tomasz Kamusella, The Politics of Language and Nationalism in Modern Central Europe (Palgrave Macmillan; ISBN 0230550703, 9780230550704), page 422
    Hussites, who readily embraced Hus’s spelling reform, replaced the superscript dot with the circumflex turned upside down, still known in English by its Czech name ‘háček’ (literally, ‘small hook’), for instance, [č] for /ch/, [ě] for /palatalized e/, [ň] for /palatalized n/, [ř] for /rhoticized zh/, [š] for /sh/, and [ž] for /zh/. The superscript dot gave way to the superscript coma in [ď] and [ť] for /palatalized d/ and /palatalized t/ but the letters’ capital counterparts, [Ď] and [Ť] retained the háček.
  • 2009, Autumn Pierce, Angličtina, page 28:
    There are no separate keys for háčky and čárky.

other spellings[edit]

  • 1983, David Ambrose, Lesotho, page 457
    The second diacritic is the hatschek applied to the aspirated ts sound, written .
  • 1992, Kate Burridge and Werner Enninger [eds.], Diachronic Studies on the Languages of the Anabaptists, page 76
    Full voicing is indicated by an understrike hac̬ek, i.e. [b̬], under the corresponding consonant.
  • 1997, Victor A. Friedman, “Linguistic form and content in the Romani-language press of the Republic of Macedonia” in The Typology and Dialectology of Romani, eds. Yaron Matras, Peter Bakker, and Hristo Kyuchukov, page 185
    RS follows standard East European practice of using the wedge (haček, čiriklo) to indicate the strident palatals (š, ž, č, dž).
  • 2001, Felix K. Ameka, “Ideophones and the nature of the adjective word class in Ewe” in Typological Studies in Language XLIV: Ideophones, eds. Friedrich Karl Erhard Voeltz and Christa Kilian-Hatz, page 46, endnote 2
    The hatchek marks a rising tone.
  • 2003 March 25, "jizlobber" (username), Re: Accents in forms, in, Usenet:
    I can get umlauts and accents, but can’t find any hacecks for the Czech characters.
  • 2006 March 6, Ralph W. Fasold and Jeff Connor-Linton [eds.], An Introduction to Language and Linguistics, pages 23–24
    In other transcription systems commonly used in linguistics books, [ʃ], [ʒ], [tʃ], and [dʒ] are written with hatchecks: [š], [ž], [č], [ǰ].
  • 2007, Erik Gren, Orientalia Suecana LVI, page 251
    Here I will use ō, ū, ī, haċek letters č, š, ǰ, and ġ for the voiced counterpart of q.