- 1 English
- 2 Czech
- 3 French
- haček (attested since 1956), hacek (1959), hachek (1969)
- (rare:) haċek (1967), hatcheck (1981), hatschek (1983), hatchek (1988), hacheck (1990), hac̬ek (1992), haczek (1995), hácek (1997), haĉek (2002), haceck (2003)
The central consonant, /tʃ/, is variously Anglicized as ch or tch, Germanized as tsch, Polonized as cz, or left as c, either bare or adorned with a tečka (ċ), circumflex (ĉ) or háček below (c̬) (when referring to a háček written beneath a letter). The final consonant is sometimes written -ck instead of -k.
First attested in 1951; from the Czech háček (“háček”, literally “little hook”), the diminutive of hák (“hook”) (from Middle High German hāken, from Old High German hāko (“hook”), from Proto-Germanic *hakô (“hook”), from Proto-Indo-European *keg-, *keng- (“peg, hook”)) + the diminutive suffix -ek. Cognate with and formed like English hooklet and German Häkchen. Also cognate with Old English haca (“hook, door-fastening”) and modern English hake (more information below).
- IPA(key): /ˈhɑːtʃɛk/, enPR: häʹchĕk
- (Received Pronunciation, Geordie, Scotland) IPA(key): /ˈhætʃɛk/, enPR: hăʹchĕk
- (orthography and typography) A caron; a diacritical mark (ˇ) usually resembling an inverted circumflex, but in the cases of ď, Ľ, ľ, and ť resembling a prime (′) instead.
- 1948, Bohumil Emil Mikula, Progressive Czech (Bohemian), page 6:
- The caret (ˇ), háček, is used over the following consonants: c, d, n, t, r, s, and z to indicate the soft sound.
- 1951, Hans Jakob Polotsky, Notes on Gurage Grammar, page 5:
- Linguistic forms had to be set in ordinary roman type and the capital C of Cäxa had to be left without a háček.
- 1956, Morris Halle (editor), For Roman Jakobson, page 332:
- Good Teutonic Kitsch looks rather forlorn and out of place wearing a Bohemian háček over its shrunken hind quarters. But the high traditions of scholarship must be maintained, and on these pages Meester Kitsch will masquerade as Mr. Kič.
- 1966, Charles Ernest Bazell et al. (editors), In Memory of J.R. Firth, page 205:
- In the system used here and elsewhere in this article for Bantu tone, low syllables are unmarked, high syllables have an acute accent, and rising syllables a haček respectively; thus a, á, ǎ.
- 1991, Peter Hugh Reed, American Record Guide LIV:ii, page 69
- The printer had no hatchek — the flattened “v” that appears over letters in Czech — to put over Dvořak’s R. So somebody laboriously inked in all the hatcheks.
- 2002, Torbjörn Lundmark, Quirky QWERTY, page 34
- háček used to signify the third tone (wǔ — ‘five’)
- 2005, Stavroula Varella, Language Contact and the Lexicon in the History of Cypriot Greek, page 46:
- Another orthographic practice […] was developed […] in the twentieth century: this is the adoption of the hacek for the representation of the Cypriot postalveolar fricatives and affricates, which are otherwise not distinguished by the normal characters of the Greek alphabet alone. It was not until very recently, therefore, that the spellings <σ̌>, <τσ̌>, <ζ̌> and <τζ̌>, for [ʃ], [tʃ], [ʒ] and [dʒ] respectively, became available.
- 2006, Mary Betik Trojacek, Beyond Ellis Island, page 17:
- My father always wrote Bětik with a little “v” called haĉek, above the “e”; Marušaks placed the haĉek above the “s”.
- For more examples of the usage of this term see Citations:háček, Citations:haček, Citations:hacek, Citations:haċek, Citations:hachek, Citations:hatcheck, Citations:hatschek, Citations:hǎcek, Citations:hatchek, Citations:hacheck, Citations:hac̬ek, Citations:haczek, Citations:háçek, Citations:hácek, Citations:haĉek, Citations:haceck and Citations:háčky.
- 1948, Bohumil Emil Mikula, Progressive Czech (Bohemian), page 6:
- (háček diacritic): caret (non-standard), caron, chevron (informal), čiriklo (when used in Romani), clicka (rare), hat (non-standard, rare), hook (rare), inverted caret (informal), inverted circumflex (informal), inverted hat (non-standard), mäkčeň (when used in Slovak), palatal hook (rare, when it takes the form of a prime), strešica (when used in Slovene), wedge (US), wing (informal, rare)
A survey of eleven other lexicographical sources reveals that LookWAYup and Vocabulary.com fully define wedge in the relevant sense, whilst Dictionary.com and the Random House Unabridged Dictionary (1997) give the typographic-cum-orthographic sense the one-word gloss “haček”, and WordNet 3.0 codefines it with háček; the six other sources, namely the American Heritage Dictionary, the Collins English Dictionary, the Compact Oxford English Dictionary, Dictionarist.com, the Oxford English Dictionary [2nd ed., 1989], and the UltraLingua English Dictionary, all omit this sense of wedge. All eleven sources list and define háček. Not one of the sources lists an entry for čiriklo, clicka, inverted caret, inverted circumflex, inverted hat, mäkčeň, palatal hook, or strešica; neither does any of them include the relevant sense in any of their entries for caret, chevron, hat, hook, or wing.
- (diacritics used in Latin-derived scripts): acute accent (above (´), below (ˏ), double (˝)), apostrophe (ʼ), breve (above (˘), below ( ̮)), bridge ( ̪), candrabindu ( ̐), cedilla (¸), circumflex (above (ˆ), below ( ̭)), comma (above right ( ̕), below ( ̦), reversed (ʽ), turned (ʻ)), diaeresis (above (¨), below ( ̤)), dot (overdot (˙), underdot ( ̣)), grave accent (above (`), below (ˎ), double ( ̏)), háček (above (ˇ), below ( ̬)), half ring (left (ʿ), right (ʾ)), hook (above ( ̉), palatal ( ̡), retroflex ( ̢), rhotic (˞)), horn ( ̛), inverted breve (above ( ̑), below ( ̯), double ( ͡ )), inverted bridge ( ̺), inverted double arch ( ̫), left angle ( ̚), low line (single ( ̲), double ( ̳)), macron (above (¯), below (ˍ)), minus (˗), ogonek (˛), overline (single (‾), double ( ̿)), plus (˖), ring (above (˚), below ( ̥)), seagull ( ̼), solidus (long ( ̸), short ( ̷)), square ( ̻), stroke (long ( ̶), short ( ̵)), tack (down (˕), left ( ̘), right ( ̙), up (˔)), tilde (above (˜), below ( ̰), double ( ͠ ), middle / overlay ( ̴), vertical ( ̾)), umlaut (¨), vertical line (above (ˈ), below (ˌ), double ( ̎)), x (ˣ)
- (Czech diacritics): čárka (´), háček (ˇ), kroužek (˚), tečka (˙)
- “‖háček” listed in the Oxford English Dictionary (2nd edition, 1989, with citations from 1953, 1959, 1980 and 1984)
(‖ˈhaːtʃɛk, ˈhæ-) “above a consonant, it indicates palatalization (as č (tʃ), š (ʃ)) […] above e, it indicates the vowel phoneme jatʹ”
- “ha•ček” listed in the Random House Unabridged Dictionary
hä'chek “a diacritical mark (ˇ) […] [used in] Czech and Lithuanian, and in some systems of phonetic transcription”
- “ha·ček” listed in The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (4th edition, 2000)
häʹchĕk', from Czech háček, diminutive of hák […] , from Middle High German hāken, from Old High German hāko, from Proto-Indo-European keg-
- “háček” listed in the Compact Oxford English Dictionary of Current English (3rd edition, 2008)
/ˈhɑːtʃɛk, ˈha-/ “a diacritic mark (ˇ) […] [used] in Slavic and other languages.” From Czech, diminutive of hák ‘hook’
- “háček” defined by Dictionarist.com
“diacritical mark (inverted circumflex) […] if placed over the letter ‘c’ it changes the sound to ‘ch’”
- “háček” listed in the Collins English Dictionary online (December 2011)
ˈhɑːtʃɛk “a diacritic mark (ˇ) […] used in Slavonic languages to indicate various forms of palatal articulation, as in […] č and […] ř used in Czech”
- “ha·ček” defined by Dictionary.com
/ˈhɑtʃɛk/ Also, há·ček. Also called wedge. 1950–55; from Czech háček, diminutive of hák hook, from German
- little hook (diminutive form of hák)
- háček (diacritic)
- catch, snag (a concealed difficulty, especially in a deal or negotiation)
háček m (plural háčeks)