The noun is derived from Middle English strok, stroke (“blow from a weapon, cut”), from Old English strāc, from Proto-West Germanic *straik, from Proto-Germanic *straikaz (“stroke”), from Proto-Indo-European *streyg- (“to rub, stroke; to shear; to strike”).
Sense 220.127.116.11 (“the oblique, slash, or virgule (‘/’)”) is a contraction of oblique stroke, a variant of oblique which was originally used in telegraphy.
The verb is derived from the noun.
stroke (plural strokes)
- An act of hitting; a blow, a hit.
- Synonym: beat
a stroke on the chin
1622, Francis, Lord Verulam, Viscount St. Alban [i.e. Francis Bacon], The Historie of the Raigne of King Henry the Seventh, […], London: […] W[illiam] Stansby for Matthew Lownes, and William Barret, OCLC 1086746628, page 142:
Hee paſſed the vvhole length of Italie vvithout reſiſtance, […] He likevviſe entred and vvonne (in effect) the vvhole Kingdome of Naples it ſelfe, vvithout ſtriking ſtroke.
1651, Thomas Hobbes, “Of Imagination”, in Leviathan, or The Matter, Forme, & Power of a Common-wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civill, London: […] [William Wilson] for Andrew Crooke, […], OCLC 895063360, first part (Of Man), page 5:
But becauſe amongſt many ſtroaks, vvhich our eyes, eares, and other organs receive from external bodies, the predominant onely is ſenſible; therefore the light of the Sun being predominant, vve are not affected vvith the action of the ſtarrs.
1659–1660, Thomas Stanley, “[Epicurus: The Second Part of Philosophy.] Chapter IV. Of the Generation of the World.”, in The History of Philosophy, the Third and Last Volume, […], volume III, London: […] Humphrey Moseley, and Thomas Dring, […], OCLC 1205532072, 5th part (Containing the Epicurean Sect), section II (Of the World), page 171:
[A]fter the impulſive force, vvhich drove them upvvard, grevv languid, nor vvas there any other ſtroak, vvhich might toſſe them that vvay, the Atoms themſelves, endeavouring to go dovvn again, met vvith obſacles from others, vvhereupon they flevv about vvith greater activity, […]
1799 (date written), W[illiam] Wordsworth, “Lucy Gray”, in Lyrical Ballads, with Other Poems. […], 2nd edition, London: […] T[homas] N[orton] Longman and O[wen] Rees, […], by Biggs and Co., […], published 1800, OCLC 1940299, page 65:
With many a wanton stroke / Her feet disperse the powd'ry snow / That rises up like smoke.
- An act of striking with a weapon; a blow.
1695, William Temple, An Introduction to the History of England, London: […] Richard Simpson […], and Ralph Simpson […], OCLC 1015509825, page 13:
No Perſon vvas puniſhed by Bonds, Strokes, or Death, vvithout the Judgment and Sentence of the Druids: […]
1806, William Wordsworth, “The Horn of Egremont Castle”, in Poems, in Two Volumes, volume I, London: […] Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme, […], published 1807, OCLC 262842809, page 40:
Side by side they fought (the Lucies / Were a line for valour fam'd) / And where'er their strokes alighted / There the Saracens were tam'd.
1829 May 2, [Walter Scott], chapter VIII, in Anne of Geierstein; or, The Maiden of the Mist. […], volume I, Edinburgh: […] [Ballantyne and Company] for Cadell and Co., […]; London: Simpkin and Marshall, […], OCLC 230674445, page 226:
When this idea intruded on the train of romantic visions which agitated him, it was like the sharp stroke of the harpoon, which awakens the whale from torpidity into violent action.
1862 July – 1863 August, George Eliot [pseudonym; Mary Ann Evans], “The Prisoners”, in Romola. […], volume II, London: Smith, Elder and Co., […], published 1863, OCLC 1084920803, book II, page 21:
The men who held the ropes were French soldiers, and by broken Italian phrases and strokes from the knotted end of a rope, they from time to time stimulated their prisoners to beg.
- A single movement with a tool; also, an impact of a tool on an object.
1611, The Holy Bible, […] (King James Version), London: […] Robert Barker, […], OCLC 964384981, Deuteronomy 19:5, column 2:
[W]hen a man goeth into the wood with his neighbor, to hew wood, and his hand fetcheth a ſtroke with the axe to cut downe the tree, and the head ſlippeth from the helue, and lighteth vpon his neighbour that he die, he ſhall flee vnto one of thoſe cities, and liue: […]
1697, Virgil, “The Fourth Book of the Georgics”, in John Dryden, transl., The Works of Virgil: Containing His Pastorals, Georgics, and Æneis. […], London: […] Jacob Tonson, […], OCLC 403869432, lines 253–255, page 129:
VVith lifted Arms they order ev'ry Blovv, / And chime their ſounding Hammers in a Rovv; / VVith ſtrokes of Anvils Ætna groans belovv.
1834–1838 (date written), Thomas Babington Macaulay, “Horatius”, in Lays of Ancient Rome, London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, […], published 1842, OCLC 6479273, stanza 7, page 49:
But now no stroke of woodman / Is heard by Auser's rill; […]
- An act, or the sound, of the clapper or hammer of a clock hitting a bell or other striking mechanism; hence, the time when such a strike occurs.
on the stroke of midnight
2012 May 9, John Percy, “Birmingham City 2 Blackpool 2 (2–3 on agg[regate]): match report”, in Tony Gallagher, editor, The Daily Telegraph, London: Telegraph Media Group, ISSN 0307-1235, OCLC 635239717, archived from the original on 23 July 2021: Already guarding a 1–0 lead from the first leg, Blackpool inched further ahead when Stephen Dobbie scored from an acute angle on the stroke of half-time. The game appeared to be completely beyond Birmingham's reach three minutes into the second period when Matt Phillips reacted quickly to bundle the ball past Colin Doyle and off a post.
- (ball games) An act of hitting or trying to hit a ball; also, the manner in which this is done.
- (cricket) The action of hitting the ball with the bat; a shot.
- (golf) A single act of striking at the ball with a club; also, at matchplay, a shot deducted from a player's score at a hole as a result of a handicapping system.
- (squash) A point awarded to a player in case of interference or obstruction by the opponent.
- (tennis) The hitting of a ball with a racket; also, the movement of the racket and arm that produces that impact.
- A movement similar to that of hitting.
- One of a series of beats or movements against a resisting medium, by means of which movement through or upon it is accomplished.
the stroke of a bird’s wing in flying
- The movement of an oar or paddle through water, either the pull which actually propels the boat, or a single entire cycle of movement including the pull; also, the manner in which such movements are made; a rowing style.
- (by extension) The rower who is nearest the stern of the boat, the movement of whose oar sets the rowing rhythm for the other rowers; also, the position in the boat occupied by this rower.
- (swimming) A specific combination of movements of the arms and legs which, when repeated, causes the swimmer to advance through the water; also, the manner in which such movements are made; a swimming style.
1913, Joseph C[rosby] Lincoln, chapter VII, in Mr. Pratt’s Patients, New York, N.Y.; London: D[aniel] Appleton and Company, OCLC 1650302, pages 165–166:
Old Applegate, in the stern, just set and looked at me, and Lord James, amidship, waved both arms and kept hollering for help. I took a couple of everlasting big strokes and managed to grab hold of the skiff's rail, close to the stern.
- A beat or throb, as of the heart or pulse.
- Synonym: pulsation
1847, Alfred Tennyson, “Part VI”, in The Princess: A Medley, London: Edward Moxon, […], OCLC 2024748, page 157:
[I]n true marriage lies / Nor equal, nor unequal: each fulfils / Defect in each, and always thought in thought, / Purpose in purpose, will in will, they grow, / The single pure and perfect animal, / The two-cell'd heart beating, with one full stroke / Life.
- (technology) A single movement or thrust of a part (such as a piston) of a machine that moves back and forth; also, the length of this movement.
- (by extension) A thrust of the penis during sexual intercourse.
- An act causing hurt or death, especially when seen as divine punishment.
the stroke of death
a. 1530 (date written), John Skelton, “Magnyfycence, a Goodly Interlude and a Mery, […]”, in Alexander Dyce, editor, The Poetical Works of John Skelton: […], volume I, London: Thomas Rodd, […], published 1843, OCLC 1000393158, lines 1908–1911, page 287:
The stroke of God, Aduersyte I hyght; / I pluke downe kynge, prynce, lorde, and knyght, / I rushe at them rughly, and make them ly full lowe, / And in theyr moste truste i make them ouerthrowe.
1667, John Milton, “Book IX”, in Paradise Lost. […], London: […] [Samuel Simmons], […], OCLC 228722708; republished as Paradise Lost in Ten Books: […], London: Basil Montagu Pickering […], 1873, OCLC 230729554, lines 470–471:
So judg'd he Man, both Judge and Saviour ſent, / And th' inſtant ſtroke of Death denounc'd that day / Remov'd farr off; […]
1785–1786 (date written; published 1786), Robert Burns, “The Cotter’s Saturday Night”, in Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect, volume II, 2nd edition, Edinburgh: […] T[homas] Cadell, […], and William Creech, […], published 1793, OCLC 860627146, stanza XIV, page 12:
[H]ovv the royal Bard did groaning lye, / Beneath the ſtroke of Heaven's avenging ire; […]
1860, George Augustus Sala, “Philip Leslie”, in The Baddington Peerage: Who Won, and Who Wore It. A Story of the Best and the Worst Society. […], volume I, London: Charles J. Skeet, […], OCLC 16151988, page 306:
The Professor, treating the murderous assault upon him by Juan Manuel Harispe very lightly, and regarding it simply as a significant point d'arrêt to his gallantries towards Manuelita, not to be passed over in its portents any more than the first stroke of disease which attacks thrice before it kills, limited his arrangement of precautionary measures to giving Señor Harispe, his niece, and his establishment a very wide berth; […]
- A damaging occurrence, especially if sudden; a blow, a calamity.
1686 April 25 (Gregorian calendar), John Evelyn, “[Diary entry for 15 April 1686]”, in William Bray, editor, Memoirs, Illustrative of the Life and Writings of John Evelyn, […], volume I, 2nd edition, London: Henry Colburn, […]; and sold by John and Arthur Arch, […], published 1819, OCLC 976971842, page 626: The Abp. [Archbishop] of York [John Dolben] now died of ye small pox, aged 62, a corpulent man. […] I looke on this as a greate stroke to ye poore Church of England, now in this defecting period.
1767, [Walter Harte], “Eulogius: Or, The Charitable Mason”, in The Amaranth: Or, Religious Poems; […], London: […] Mess. Robinson and Roberts, […]; and W. Frederick, […], OCLC 989956, page 200:
T'encreaſe this load, ſome ſycophant-report / Deſtroy'd his int'reſt and good grace at court. / At this one ſtroke the man look'd dead in lavv: / His flatt'rers ſcamper, and his friends vvithdravv.
1851 June – 1852 April, Harriet Beecher Stowe, “The Unprotected”, in Uncle Tom’s Cabin; or, Life among the Lowly, volume I, Boston, Mass.: John P[unchard] Jewett & Company; Cleveland, Oh.: Jewett, Proctor & Worthington, published 20 March 1852, OCLC 976451739, page 145:
Tom's whole soul was filled with thoughts of eternity; and while he ministered around the lifeless clay, he did not once think that the sudden stroke had left him in hopeless slavery.
- An amount of work; specifically, a large amount of business or work.
a stroke of business
1851 June – 1852 April, Harriet Beecher Stowe, “Kentuck”, in Uncle Tom’s Cabin; or, Life among the Lowly, volume I, Boston, Mass.: John P[unchard] Jewett & Company; Cleveland, Oh.: Jewett, Proctor & Worthington, published 20 March 1852, OCLC 976451739, page 59:
["]But I'm gwine, Mas'r George,—gwine to have four dollars a week; and Missis is gwine to lay it all up, to buy back my old man agin!" / "Whew!" said George, "here's a stroke of business, to be sure! How are you going [to Louisville]?"
- A powerful or sudden effort by which something is done or produced; also, something accomplished by such an effort; an achievement, a feat.
a stroke of genius a master stroke of policy
- A movement of a brush in painting, of a chisel in carving, of a pen, pencil, or such implement in drawing or writing, etc., in one direction; hence, a line or mark made on a surface by such an implement.
1762, Horace Walpole, “Painters and Other Artists in the Reign of James I”, in Anecdotes of Painting in England; […], volume II, London: […] Thomas Farmer […], OCLC 973434940, footnote †, page 38: Among other branches of ſcience, if one can call it ſo, Mr. [John] Evelyn ſtudied Phyſiognomy, and found diſſimulation, boldneſs, cruelty and ambition in every touch and ſtroke of [Isaac] Fuller's picture of Oliver Cromvvell's face, vvhich he ſays, vvas the moſt reſembling portrait of the Protector.
- (linguistics) A line making up a written character; specifically, a Chinese, Japanese, or Korean character.
- (computing) In Unicode: the formal name of the individual horizontal strikethroughs (as in "A̶").
- (Britain) The oblique, slash, or virgule ("/").
2006 February 3, Graham Linehan, “Calamity Jen”, in The IT Crowd, season 1, episode 2:
Subject: Fire. Dear Sir-stroke-Madam: I am writing to inform you of a fire which has broken out at the premises of … No. That's too formal.
- A distinctive expression in a written composition; a touch. [from 17th c.]
to give some finishing strokes to an essay
- (chiefly archaic) Influence; power.
1551, Thomas More, “The Fyrste Boke of the Communycacion of Raphaell Hythlodaye Concernynge the Best State of a Commen Wealthe”, in Raphe Robynson [i.e., Ralph Robinson], transl., A Fruteful, and Pleasaunt Worke of the Best State of a Publyque Weale, and of the Newe Yle Called Utopia: […], London: […] [Steven Mierdman for] Abraham Vele, […], OCLC 1180784885:
[W]here ſoeuer poſſeſſyons be pryuate, where moneye beareth all the ſtroke, it is hard and almoſte impoſſyble that there the weale publyque maye iuſtelye be gouerned and proſperouſlye floryſhe: […]
1564 February, Erasmus, “The Saiynges of Philippus Kyng of Macedonie”, in Nicolas Udall [i.e., Nicholas Udall], transl., Apophthegmes, that is to Saie, Prompte, Quicke, Wittie and Sentẽcious Saiynges, […], London: […] Ihon Kingston, OCLC 228713049, book II, folio 122, recto, paragraph 16: Theſame Alexander, be auiſed and coũſailed, that he ſhould winne and make frendes vnto him, all ſuche perſones both honeſt and vnhoneſt, good and badde, as beare any rule, ſtroke or autoritte, in the commen weale, and that the good men he ſhould vſe, and the euil perſones he ſhould abuſe, that is to ſaie, applie to ſome good vſe, that of theimſelfes they are not apte nor inclined vnto. 1993, Dana Stabenow, chapter 5, in A Fatal Thaw (A Kate Shugak Mystery), Hampton Falls, N.H.: Beeler Large Print, Thomas T. Beeler, published 2002, →ISBN, page 78:
Just somebody with a low lottery number, not enough stroke to get in the National Guard, and a distaste for tropical climates.
- (professional wrestling) Backstage influence.
- (turn-based games) A masterful or effective action.
- Synonym: masterstroke
1817, François-André Danican Philidor (translated), Studies of Chess, Samuel Bagster, page 106:
To enable any other piece to effect the decisive stroke, a greater number of facilities, arising either from the coöperation of partisans, or the obstruction of the adverse king by his own pieces, must conspire in proportion to the assailant's class.
1889, Wilhelm Steinitz, The Modern Chess Instructor, G. P. Putnam's sons, page 29:
Black gives the opponent and opportunity for a beautiful combination stroke. But his game was anyhow very bad already, for in answer to QR—R sq., which was about his only other alternative, White would have replied Kt—R5 with an irresistible attack.
- (medicine) The loss of brain function arising when the blood supply to the brain is suddenly interrupted.
- Synonyms: cerebrovascular accident, CVA
suffer a stroke
- (sciences) An individual discharge of lightning, particularly if causing damage.
A flash of lightning may be made up of several strokes. If they are separated by enough time for the eye to distinguish them, the lightning will appear to flicker.
- The effect or result of a striking; affliction or injury; a bruise or wound; soreness.
1611, The Holy Bible, […] (King James Version), London: […] Robert Barker, […], OCLC 964384981, Isaiah 30:26, column 2:
Moreover the light of the Moone ſhalbe as the light of the Sunne, and the light of the Sunne ſhall be ſeuenfold, as the light of ſeuen dayes, in the day that the Lord bindeth vp the breach of his people, and healeth the ſtroke of their wound.
- Chiefly in to have a good stroke: appetite.
1699, William Dampier, “Of the Government of Tonquin. […]”, in Voyages and Descriptions. Vol. II. […], London: […] James Knapton, […], OCLC 71352414, part I (His Voyage from Achin in Sumatra, to Tonquin, […]), page 71:
[N]either can any man be entertain'd as a Soldier, that has not a greater ſtroke than ordinary at eating: for by this they judge of his ſtrength and conſtitution.
1731 (date written), Simon Wagstaff [pseudonym; Jonathan Swift], “Dialogue II”, in A Complete Collection of Genteel and Ingenious Conversation, According to the Most Polite Mode and Method Now Used at Court and in the Best Companies of England. […], London: […] B[enjamin] Motte, and C. Bathurst, […], published 1738, OCLC 181801198, page 150:
Lady Answ[erall]. God bleſs you, Colonel; you have a good Stroke vvith you. / Col[onel Atwit]. O Madam; formerly I could eat all, but novv I leave nothing; I eat but one Meal a Day.
1893–1894, Oliver Heslop, “OWEREAT”, in Northumberland Words: A Glossary of Words Used in the County of Northumberland and on the Tyneside, volume II, London: For the English Dialect Society by Henry Frowde, Oxford University Press, […], OCLC 847136074, page 518:
Rooks are said to be fattest when food is scarcest, as they "owereat thorsels" when they have too much food. The same is said of lean children who have a good stroke (appetite).
a. 1968 (date written), Walter Macken, “The Dreamer”, in The Grass of the People, Dingle, Co. Kerry: Brandon, published 1998, →ISBN, page 212:
It distressed him, Joe said, to see them feeding like animals, without delicacy. Joe had a good stroke himself, but naturally not as good an appetite as he would have if he was doing anything.
1995, John B[rendan] Keane, “Something Drastic”, in The Voice of an Angel and Other Christmas Stories, Dublin: Mercier Press, →ISBN, page 88:
It was said of him that he had a good stroke which simply meant in the everyday idiom of the place that he was possessed of a healthy appetite.
- (medicine) A sudden attack of any illness, especially if causing loss of consciousness or movement, or when fatal.
a stroke of apoplexy
- (music) A bow or pluck of a string or strings of a stringed instrument; also, the manner in which a musical instrument is played; hence, a melody, a tune.
1667 March 22 (Gregorian calendar), John Evelyn, “[Epistolary Correspondence.] To Abraham Cowley, Esq.”, in William Bray, editor, Memoirs, Illustrative of the Life and Writings of John Evelyn, […], volume II, 2nd edition, London: Henry Colburn, […]; and sold by John and Arthur Arch, […], published 1819, OCLC 976971842, part I, page 175:
Or can he desire a nobler or a fuller Argument either for the softest Aires or the loudest Echoes, for the smoothest or briskest strokes of his Pindaric Lyre?
act of hitting — See also translations at blow
- Arabic: ضَرْبَة f (ḍarba)
- Armenian: հարված (hy) (harvac)
- Azerbaijani: zərbə (az), vuruş
- Belarusian: уда́р m (udár)
- Bulgarian: у́дар (bg) m (údar)
- Catalan: cop (ca) m
- Czech: úder (cs) m
- Danish: slag (da) n
- Dutch: klap (nl) m
- Esperanto: frapo, bato
- Finnish: isku (fi), lyönti (fi)
- French: coup (fr) m
- Galician: golpe (gl) m, pancada (gl) f, zoupada f, trambullón m, tordeón m, tombo (gl) m, mocazo m, lapote (gl) m
- German: Schlag (de) m, Hieb (de) m
- Ancient: κροῦμα f (kroûma), πληγή f (plēgḗ)
- Ido: frapo (io)
- Irish: béim (ga) f
- Italian: colpo (it) m
- Latin: plāga (la) f
- Macedonian: удар m (udar)
- Maori: tarawete, maka, whakapānga
- Norwegian: slag (no) n
- Polish: cios (pl) m
- Portuguese: pancada (pt) f, ataque (pt)
- Russian: уда́р (ru) m (udár)
- Scottish Gaelic: beum m, bualadh m, buille f
- Spanish: golpe (es) m
- Swedish: slag (sv) n
- Ukrainian: уда́р (uk) m (udár)
- Welsh: arfod f, ergyd (cy)
- Yiddish: קלאַפּ m (klap)
act of striking with a weapon — See also translations at blow
act, or the sound, of the clapper or hammer of a clock hitting a bell or other striking mechanism
time when a strike of a clock occurs
act of hitting or trying to hit a ball; the manner in which this is done
) action of hitting the ball with the bat — See also translations at shot
(golf) single act of striking at the ball with a club; at matchplay, a shot deducted from a player’s score at a hole as a result of a handicapping system
(squash) point awarded to a player in case of interference or obstruction by the opponent
(tennis) hitting of a ball with a racket; movement of the racket and arm that produces that impact
movement similar to that of hitting
one of a series of beats or movements against a resisting medium, by means of which movement through or upon it is accomplished
movement of an oar or paddle through water; manner in which such movements are made
rower who is nearest to the stern of the boat, the movement of whose oar sets the rowing rhythm for the other rowers; position in the boat occupied by this rower
specific combination of movements of the arms and legs which, when repeated, causes the swimmer to advance through the water; manner in which such movements are made
single movement or thrust of a part (such as a piston) of a machine that moves back and forth; length of this movement
act causing hurt or death, especially when seen as divine punishment
damaging occurrence, especially if sudden — see blow
amount of work; specifically, a large amount of business or work
powerful or sudden effort by which something is done or produced; something accomplished by such an effort
(professional wrestling) backstage influence
movement of a brush in painting, of a chisel in carving, of a pen, pencil, or such implement in drawing or writing, etc., in one direction
line or mark made on a surface by an implement for drawing, writing, etc.
- Arabic: خَطّ (ar) m (ḵaṭṭ)
- Belarusian: ры́са (be) f (rýsa), чырта́ f (čyrtá), штрых m (štryx)
- Bulgarian: щрих m (štrih)
- Mandarin: 線 (zh), 线 (zh) (xiàn)
- Czech: tah (cs) m
- Danish: streg c
- Dutch: streek (nl) f
- Finnish: piirto (fi), veto (fi)
- French: trait (fr) m
- German: Strich (de) m, Federstrich (de) m, Zug (de) m (rare)
- Gothic: 𐍃𐍄𐍂𐌹𐌺𐍃 m (striks)
- Hungarian: vonás (hu)
- Italian: tratto (it) m
- Luxembourgish: Stréch m
- Polish: kreska (pl) f
- Portuguese: traço (pt) m
- Russian: штрих (ru) m (štrix), черта́ (ru) f (čertá)
- Spanish: trazo (es) f
- Swedish: streck (sv) n, drag (sv) n
- Ukrainian: ри́са f (rýsa), штрих (uk) m (štryx)
- Volapük: penaliun, penamaliun
line making up a written character; specifically, a Chinese, Japanese, or Korean character
- Mandarin: 筆畫 (zh), 笔画 (zh) (bǐhuà), 筆劃 (zh), 笔划 (zh) (bǐhuà), 筆 (zh), 笔 (zh) (bǐ)
- Danish: strøg n
- Finnish: veto (fi)
- French: trait (fr) m
- German: Strich (de) m
- Hungarian: vonás (hu)
- Japanese: 画 (ja) (かく, kaku), 劃 (ja) (かく, kaku), 筆画 (ひっかく, hikkaku)
- Korean: 획 (ko) (hoek), 필획 (pilhoek)
- Macedonian: цр́та f (cŕta)
- Russian: черта́ (ru) f (čertá)
- Spanish: trazo (es) m
- Swedish: streck (sv) n
in Unicode: the formal name of the individual horizontal strikethroughs — see strikethrough
distinctive expression in a written composition — see touch
loss of brain function arising when the blood supply to the brain is suddenly interrupted
- Arabic: سكتة دِمَاغِيَّة f
- Armenian: կաթված (hy) (katʿvac)
- Bulgarian: припадък (bg) m (pripadǎk)
- Catalan: ictus (ca) m
- Mandarin: 中风 (zh) (zhòngfēng), 卒中 (zh) (cùzhòng)
- Czech: mrtvice f, mozková mrtvice f
- Danish: slagtilfælde n, apopleksi (medical)
- Dutch: beroerte (nl) f
- Esperanto: apopleksio
- Finnish: aivoinfarkti (fi), aivohalvaus (fi)
- French: accident vasculaire cérébral (fr) m, attaque cérébrale (fr) f, AVC (fr) m, infarctus (fr) m
- Galician: ictus m, derrame m
- German: Schlaganfall (de) m, Hirninfarkt m, Hirnschlag m, Apoplexie (de) f, (short form, colloquial) Apoplex (de) m, (colloquial) Schlagerl (de) n
- Greek: εγκεφαλικό (el) n (egkefalikó)
- Ancient: ἀποπληξία f (apoplēxía)
- Hebrew: שָׁבָץ (he) m (shaváts), שָׁבָץ מֹחִי (he) m (shaváts mokhí)
- Hungarian: agyvérzés (hu)
- Indonesian: strok
- Italian: accidente cerebrovascolare, colpo apoplettico, ictus (it)
- Japanese: 脳梗塞 (nōkōsoku)
- Latin: apoplēxia f
- Macedonian: дамла f (damla), мозочен удар m (mozočen udar)
- Malay: angin ahmar
- Maori: ikura roro, mate ikura roro, mate rehu ohotata, rehu ohotata
- Norwegian: slag (no) n
- Bokmål: hjerneslag (no) n
- Nynorsk: hjerneslag n
- Persian: سکته مغزی (fa) (sekte-ye mağzi)
- Polish: wylew (pl) m, apopleksja (pl) f (obsolete), udar mózgu (pl) m
- Portuguese: derrame (pt) m, acidente vascular cerebral (pt) m
- Russian: парали́ч (ru) m (paralíč), уда́р (ru) m (udár), инсу́льт (ru) m (insúlʹt)
- Spanish: apoplejía (es) f, accidente cerebro vascular m (ACV), derrame (es) m (most common), ictus (es) m
- Swahili: kiharusi (sw)
- Swedish: stroke (sv) c, slag (sv) n, slaganfall (sv) n
- Tagalog: stroke, istrok
- Volapük: breinaflap, breinaparalüd, paopläg (vo)
- Yiddish: שלאַק m or n (shlak), פּאָפּלעקציע f (poplektsye), אַפּאָפּלעקסיע f (apopleksye)
individual discharge of lightning, particularly if causing damage
stroke (third-person singular simple present strokes, present participle stroking, simple past and past participle stroked)
- To draw the horizontal line across the upright part (of the letter t).
- Followed by out or through: to draw a line or lines through (text) to indicate that it is deleted; to cancel, to strike or strike out.
- (poetic, rare) Of a bell or clock: to chime or sound to indicate (the hour, the time, etc.).
- (rare) To mark (something) with lines or stripes; to stripe.
- (ball games) To hit or kick (the ball) with a flowing or smooth motion; also, to score (a goal, a point, etc.) by doing so.
- Of a rower or a crew: to row at (a rate of a certain number of strokes (“movements of the oar through water”) per minute).
- To act as the stroke (“rower who is nearest the stern of the boat, the movement of whose oar sets the rowing rhythm for the other rowers”) of (a boat or its crew).
to stroke a boat
- (swimming) To strike (the water) with one's arms and legs when swimming.
- (obsolete) To depict (something) with a paintbrush.
- (medicine) Chiefly followed by out: to suffer loss of brain function when the blood supply to the brain is suddenly interrupted; to have a stroke (noun sense 4).
- (swimming) To swim by making co-ordinated movements with the arms and legs.
to draw the horizontal line across the upright part (of the letter t)
to draw a line or lines through (text) to indicate that it is deleted — see cancel
, strike out
of a bell or clock: to chime or sound to indicate (the hour, the time, etc.)
to mark (something) with lines or stripes — see stripe
to hit or kick (the ball) with a flowing or smooth motion; to score (a goal, a point, etc.) by doing so
of a rower or a crew: to row at (a rate of a certain number of strokes per minute)
to act as the stroke of (a boat or its crew)
to strike (the water) with one’s arms and legs when swimming
to suffer loss of brain function when the blood supply to the brain is suddenly interrupted
to swim by making co-ordinated movements with the arms and legs
The verb is derived from Middle English stroken, straken (“to caress, fondle, pat, rub, smooth, stroke; to pass something over (someone or something); to brush or rub against;”) [and other forms], from Old English strācian (“to stroke”), from Proto-West Germanic *straikōn (“to caress, stroke”), from *straik (“a line, stroke; a dash”) (see further at etymology 1) + *-ōn (suffix forming verbs from nouns).
The noun is derived from the verb.
stroke (third-person singular simple present strokes, present participle stroking, simple past and past participle stroked) (transitive)
- To move one's hand or an object (such as a broom or brush) along (a surface) in one direction, touching it lightly; to caress.
1660 July 16 (Gregorian calendar), John Evelyn, “[Diary entry for 6 July 1660]”, in William Bray, editor, Memoirs, Illustrative of the Life and Writings of John Evelyn, […], volume I, 2nd edition, London: Henry Colburn, […]; and sold by John and Arthur Arch, […], published 1819, OCLC 976971842, pages 323–324:
His Majestie began first to touch for ye evil, according to custome, thus: his Matie sitting under his State in ye Banquetting House, the Chirurgeons cause the sick to be brought or led up to the throne, where they kneeling, ye King strokes their faces or cheekes with both his hands at once, at which instant a Chaplaine in his formalities says, "He put his hands upon them and he healed them."
1700, [John] Dryden, “Cinyras and Myrrha, out of the Tenth Book of Ovid’s Metamorphosis”, in Fables Ancient and Modern; […], London: […] Jacob Tonson, […], OCLC 228732415, page 177: The tender Sire, vvho ſavv her bluſh, and cry, / Aſcrib'd it all to Maiden-modeſty, / And dry'd the falling Drops, and yet more kind, / He ſtroak'd her Cheeks, and holy Kiſſes join'd.
1788, Edward Gibbon, “Description of Arabia and Its Inhabitants. […]”, in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, volume V, London: […] W[illiam] Strahan; and T[homas] Cadell, […], OCLC 995235880, page 183:
The gravity and firmneſs of the mind is conſpicuous in his outvvard demeanor: his ſpeech is ſlovv, vveighty, and conciſe, he is ſeldom provoked to laughter, his only geſture is that of ſtroking his beard, the venerable ſymbol of manhood; and the ſenſe of his ovvn importance teaches him to accoſt his equals vvithout levity, and his ſuperiors vvithout avve.
1791, Oliver Goldsmith, “Of Animals of the Hare Kind. [The Guinea-pig.]”, in An History of the Earth, and Animated Nature. […], volume IV, new edition, London: […] F[rancis] Wingrave, successor to Mr. [John] Nourse, […], OCLC 877622212, page 53:
It [the guinea pig] ſtrokes its head vvith the fore feet like the rabbit; and, like it, ſits upon the hind feet; […]
1911 October 26, Max Beerbohm, chapter XVI, in Zuleika Dobson, or, An Oxford Love Story, 1st American edition, New York, N.Y.: John Lane Company, published 1912, OCLC 925129, page 248:
Softly she stroked the carpet with the palms of her hands. "Happy carpet!" she crooned. "Aye, happy the very women that wove the threads that are trod by the feet of my beloved master. […]"
- (also figuratively) To bring (something) to a certain condition by stroking (sense 1).
- (especially psychoanalysis) To give assurance to (someone) through encouragement.
1610–1611 (date written), William Shakespeare, “The Tempest”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies […] (First Folio), London: […] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act I, scene ii], page 4, column 2:
[W]hen thou cam'ſt firſt / Thou ſtroakſt me, & made much of me: […]
- (by extension, chiefly US, politics) To influence (someone) by convincing or flattering them.
- (agriculture) To milk (a cow or other animal); especially, to squeeze the teat of (a cow, etc.) to extract the last bit of milk from the udder; to strap (dialectal), to strip.
- (masonry) To give a finely fluted surface to (stone) by carving it with a tool.
- To sharpen (a knife or other cutting instrument) by honing or rubbing it against a surface.
- (figuratively) To soothe (someone); also, to flatter or indulge (someone).
to move one’s hand or an object along (a surface) in one direction, touching it lightly
- Afrikaans: streel
- Albanian: ledhatoj (sq), fërkoj (sq)
- Arabic: لَاطَفَ (lāṭafa), مَلَّسَ (mallasa)
- Armenian: շոյել (hy) (šoyel)
- Azerbaijani: sığallamaq, sığal çəkmək
- Belarusian: гла́дзіць impf (hládzicʹ), пагла́дзіць pf (pahládzicʹ)
- Bulgarian: гла́дя (bg) impf (gládja), погла́дя pf (pogládja), галя (bg) (galja)
- Burmese: သပ် (my) (sap)
- Catalan: acariciar (ca)
- Mandarin: 撫 (zh), 抚 (zh) (fǔ), 撫摩 (zh), 抚摩 (zh) (fǔmó)
- Czech: hladit (cs) impf, pohladit pf
- Danish: stryge (da)
- Dutch: strelen (nl), strijken (nl), aaien (nl)
- Esperanto: please add this translation if you can
- Estonian: silitama (et)
- Finnish: silittää (fi), pyyhkiä (fi), sivellä (fi)
- French: caresser (fr)
- Georgian: please add this translation if you can
- German: streicheln (de), streichen (de)
- Greek: χαϊδεύω (el) (chaïdévo), θωπεύω (el) (thopévo)
- Hebrew: ליטף \ לִטֵּף (litéf)
- Hindi: सहलाना (hi) (sahlānā), पुचकारना (hi) (puckārnā)
- Hungarian: simít (hu), simogat (hu)
- Italian: accarezzare (it)
- Japanese: なでる (ja) (naderu), 撫でる (ja) (なでる, naderu)
- Kazakh: әлпештеу (älpeşteu), сипау (kk) (sipau)
- Khmer: ក្បិត (km) (kbət), បបោស (km) (bɑbaoh), អង្អែល (km) (ʼɑngʼael)
- Korean: 쓰다듬다 (ko) (sseudadeumda)
- Latgalian: glaudeit, glausteit
- Latin: mulceō, palpō
- Latvian: glaudīt
- Lithuanian: glostyti
- Macedonian: гали impf (gali), погали pf (pogali), изгали pf (izgali)
- Maori: hokomirimiri, moremore
- Mongolian: please add this translation if you can
- Bokmål: stryke
- Old Church Slavonic:
- Cyrillic: гладити impf (gladiti)
- Old East Slavic: гладити impf (gladiti)
- Old English: strīcan
- Persian: نوازش کردن (fa) (nawâzeš kardan)
- Polish: głaskać (pl) impf, pogłaskać pf, gładzić (pl) impf, wygładzić (pl) pf
- Portuguese: acariciar (pt)
- Romanian: mângâia (ro)
- Russian: гла́дить (ru) impf (gláditʹ), погла́дить (ru) pf (pogláditʹ), ласка́ть (ru) impf (laskátʹ) (to caress)
- Scots: straik
- Scottish Gaelic: slìog
- Cyrillic: гла̏дити impf
- Roman: glȁditi (sh) impf
- Slovak: hladiť impf, pohladiť pf
- Slovene: božati (sl) impf, pobožati pf
- Lower Sorbian: głaźiś impf
- Upper Sorbian: hładźić impf
- Spanish: acariciar (es)
- Swedish: stryka (sv)
- Tajik: навозиш кардан (navoziš kardan)
- Thai: ละโบม (lá-boom), ลูบ (th) (lûup), นวด (th) (nûuat)
- Turkish: sıvazlamak (tr), okşamak (tr)
- Ukrainian: гла́дити impf (hládyty), погла́дити pf (pohládyty)
- Uzbek: silamoq (uz)
- Vietnamese: vuốt (vi)
- Welsh: anwesu (cy), gorllyfnu
- West Frisian: streakje
to bring (something) to a certain condition by stroking (sense 1)
to give assurance to (someone) through encouragement
to influence (someone) by convincing or flattering them
to milk (a cow or other animal); especially, to squeeze the teat of (a cow, etc.) to extract the last bit of milk from the udder — see strip
stroke (plural strokes)
- An act of moving one's hand or an object along a surface in one direction, touching it lightly; a caress.
She gave the cat a stroke.
- A gesture of assurance given as encouragement; specifically (psychoanalysis) in transactional analysis: a (generally positive) reaction expressed to a person which fulfils their desires or needs.
- 2009, Mark Widdowson, Transactional Analysis: 100 Key Points and Techniques (page 246)
- Not providing a stroke to a client can sometimes facilitate the client in becoming aware of their neediness or desire for approval. By not giving a stroke, the client's need is brought to the surface, where it is amenable to change, […]
- (chiefly US) A flattering or friendly act, comment, etc., done or made to a person to influence them.
act of moving one’s hand or an object along a surface in one direction, touching it lightly — See also translations at caress
- Armenian: շոյում (hy) (šoyum)
- Bulgarian: галене n (galene), милване n (milvane)
- Catalan: carícia (ca) f
- Czech: pohlazení n
- Danish: ae (da)
- Dutch: aaien (nl)
- Finnish: silitys (fi)
- French: caresse (fr) f
- Galician: aloumiño (gl) m, agarimo (gl) m, garatuxa f, lero m, crico m, apaxo m, panxoliña (gl) f
- Hungarian: simogatás (hu)
- Ido: stroko (io)
- Italian: carezza (it) f
- Polish: głaskanie (pl) n
- Portuguese: carícia (pt) f, cafuné (pt)
- Russian: погла́живание (ru) n (pogláživanije)
- Scottish Gaelic: beum m, bualadh m, buille f
- Spanish: caricia (es) f
- Swedish: strykning (sv) c
- Yiddish: גלעט m (glet)
gesture of assurance given as encouragement; in transactional analysis: a (generally positive) reaction expressed to a person which fulfils their desires or needs
- ^ “strōk(e, n.”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
- ^ Compare “stroke, n.1”, in OED Online , Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, September 2022.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 “stroke, n.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–2022.
- ^ “stroke, v.2”, in OED Online , Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, March 2022.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 “stroke, v.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–2022.
- ^ “strōken, v.”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
- ^ Compare “stroke, v.1”, in OED Online , Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, March 2022.
- ^ “stroke, n.2”, in OED Online , Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, March 2022.
Borrowed from English stroke.
- IPA(key): [ˈstroːk] (phonetic respelling: sztrók)
- Hyphenation: stroke
- Rhymes: -oːk
stroke (countable and uncountable, plural stroke-ok)
- (medicine) stroke (loss of brain function arising when the blood supply to the brain is suddenly interrupted or a particular case of it)
- Synonyms: agyvérzés, (archaic) agyszélhűdés, (folksy) gutaütés, (folksy) szélütés
- ^ Tóth, Etelka (ed.). Magyar helyesírási szótár: A magyar helyesírás szabályai tizenkettedik kiadása szerint (’Dictionary of Hungarian Orthography: according to the 12th edition of the regulations of the Hungarian orthography’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 2017. →ISBN
- ^ stroke and sztrók in the dictionary of A magyar helyesírás szabályai, 12. kiadás (’The Rules of Hungarian Orthography, 12th edition’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 2015. →ISBN
- ^ Pusztai, Ferenc (ed.). Magyar értelmező kéziszótár (’A Concise Explanatory Dictionary of Hungarian’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 2003. 2nd, expanded and revised edition. →ISBN (The online version is available with registration for one 2-hour free trial per month.)
- ^ Eőry, Vilma. Értelmező szótár+ (’Explanatory Dictionary Plus’). Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó, 2007. →ISBN
From Old English *strāc, from Proto-West Germanic *straik.
- (Northern ME, Early ME) IPA(key): /strɑːk/
- IPA(key): /strɔːk/
stroke (plural strokes)
- Any striking or hitting motion:
- A strike or hit from a weapon or instrument of torture
- A strike or hit from one's hands or other limbs
- A strike or hit from a tool against an object.
- The force of death; the origin or effect of one's demise.
- (Late Middle English) The feeling of an intense emotion or mood.
- (Late Middle English) The process of making a striking or hitting motion.
- A loud sound caused by weather (e.g. heavy rain)
- The result of a striking or hitting motion; a wound.
- (rare) A jerking or pulsing motion (e.g. a heartbeat)
From Old English strācian, from Proto-West Germanic *straikōn.
- Alternative form of stroken
- past participle of stryka
- (medicine) a stroke
- Synonym: slaganfall
From Middle English stroke, from Old English *strāc, from Proto-West Germanic *straik.
1867, “SONG”, in SONGS, ETC. IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, number 4: A vursth stroke hea strooke
- The first stroke he struck
- Jacob Poole (1867), William Barnes, editor, A Glossary, With some Pieces of Verse, of the old Dialect of the English Colony in the Baronies of Forth and Bargy, County of Wexford, Ireland, London: J. Russell Smith, page 108