stroke

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English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

The noun is derived from Middle English strok, stroke (blow from a weapon, cut),[1] from Old English strāc, from Proto-West Germanic *straik, from Proto-Germanic *straikaz (stroke), from Proto-Indo-European *streyg- (to rub, stroke; to shear; to strike).[2][3]

Sense 3.6.2.2 (“the oblique, slash, or virgule (‘/’)”) is a contraction of oblique stroke, a variant of oblique which was originally used in telegraphy.

The verb is derived from the noun.[4][5]

Noun[edit]

stroke (plural strokes)

  1. An act of hitting; a blow, a hit.
    Synonym: beat
    a stroke on the chin
    1. An act of striking with a weapon; a blow.
    2. A single movement with a tool; also, an impact of a tool on an object.
    3. An act, or the sound, of the clapper or hammer of a clock hitting a bell or other striking mechanism; hence, the time when such a strike occurs.
      on the stroke of midnight
    4. (ball games) An act of hitting or trying to hit a ball; also, the manner in which this is done.
      1. (cricket) The action of hitting the ball with the bat; a shot.
      2. (golf) A single act of striking at the ball with a club; also, at matchplay, a shot deducted from a player's score at a hole as a result of a handicapping system.
      3. (squash) A point awarded to a player in case of interference or obstruction by the opponent.
      4. (tennis) The hitting of a ball with a racket; also, the movement of the racket and arm that produces that impact.
  2. A movement similar to that of hitting.
    1. One of a series of beats or movements against a resisting medium, by means of which movement through or upon it is accomplished.
      the stroke of a bird’s wing in flying
      1. (rowing)
        1. The movement of an oar or paddle through water, either the pull which actually propels the boat, or a single entire cycle of movement including the pull; also, the manner in which such movements are made; a rowing style.
        2. (by extension) The rower who is nearest the stern of the boat, the movement of whose oar sets the rowing rhythm for the other rowers; also, the position in the boat occupied by this rower.
      2. (swimming) A specific combination of movements of the arms and legs which, when repeated, causes the swimmer to advance through the water; also, the manner in which such movements are made; a swimming style.
        butterfly stroke
        • 1913, Joseph C[rosby] Lincoln, chapter VII, in Mr. Pratt’s Patients, New York, N.Y.; London: D[aniel] Appleton and Company, OCLC 1650302, pages 165–166:
          Old Applegate, in the stern, just set and looked at me, and Lord James, amidship, waved both arms and kept hollering for help. I took a couple of everlasting big strokes and managed to grab hold of the skiff's rail, close to the stern.
    2. A beat or throb, as of the heart or pulse.
      Synonym: pulsation
      • 1847, Alfred Tennyson, “Part VI”, in The Princess: A Medley, London: Edward Moxon, [], OCLC 2024748, page 157:
        [I]n true marriage lies / Nor equal, nor unequal: each fulfils / Defect in each, and always thought in thought, / Purpose in purpose, will in will, they grow, / The single pure and perfect animal, / The two-cell'd heart beating, with one full stroke / Life.
    3. (technology) A single movement or thrust of a part (such as a piston) of a machine that moves back and forth; also, the length of this movement.
      1. (by extension) A thrust of the penis during sexual intercourse.
  3. (figuratively)
    1. An act causing hurt or death, especially when seen as divine punishment.
      the stroke of death
      • a. 1530 (date written), John Skelton, “Magnyfycence, a Goodly Interlude and a Mery, []”, in Alexander Dyce, editor, The Poetical Works of John Skelton: [], volume I, London: Thomas Rodd, [], published 1843, OCLC 1000393158, lines 1908–1911, page 287:
        The stroke of God, Aduersyte I hyght; / I pluke downe kynge, prynce, lorde, and knyght, / I rushe at them rughly, and make them ly full lowe, / And in theyr moste truste i make them ouerthrowe.
      • 1612 January 5 (first performance; Gregorian calendar), Francis Beaumont; Iohn Fletcher, A King and No King. [], London: [] [John Beale] for Thomas Walkley, [], published 1619, OCLC 1203233666, Act I, page 4:
        Sheele make you ſhrinke as I did, vvith a ſtroke / But of her eye Tigranes.
      • 1667, John Milton, “Book IX”, in Paradise Lost. [], London: [] [Samuel Simmons], [], OCLC 228722708; republished as Paradise Lost in Ten Books: [], London: Basil Montagu Pickering [], 1873, OCLC 230729554, lines 470–471:
        So judg'd he Man, both Judge and Saviour ſent, / And th' inſtant ſtroke of Death denounc'd that day / Remov'd farr off; []
      • 1785–1786 (date written; published 1786), Robert Burns, “The Cotter’s Saturday Night”, in Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect, volume II, 2nd edition, Edinburgh: [] T[homas] Cadell, [], and William Creech, [], published 1793, OCLC 860627146, stanza XIV, page 12:
        [H]ovv the royal Bard did groaning lye, / Beneath the ſtroke of Heaven's avenging ire; []
      • 1860, George Augustus Sala, “Philip Leslie”, in The Baddington Peerage: Who Won, and Who Wore It. A Story of the Best and the Worst Society. [], volume I, London: Charles J. Skeet, [], OCLC 16151988, page 306:
        The Professor, treating the murderous assault upon him by Juan Manuel Harispe very lightly, and regarding it simply as a significant point d'arrêt to his gallantries towards Manuelita, not to be passed over in its portents any more than the first stroke of disease which attacks thrice before it kills, limited his arrangement of precautionary measures to giving Señor Harispe, his niece, and his establishment a very wide berth; []
    2. A damaging occurrence, especially if sudden; a blow, a calamity.
    3. An amount of work; specifically, a large amount of business or work.
      a stroke of business
    4. A powerful or sudden effort by which something is done or produced; also, something accomplished by such an effort; an achievement, a feat.
      a stroke of genius    a master stroke of policy
    5. A movement of a brush in painting, of a chisel in carving, of a pen, pencil, or such implement in drawing or writing, etc., in one direction; hence, a line or mark made on a surface by such an implement.
      • 1762, Horace Walpole, “Painters and Other Artists in the Reign of James I”, in Anecdotes of Painting in England; [], volume II, London: [] Thomas Farmer [], OCLC 973434940, footnote †, page 38:
        Among other branches of ſcience, if one can call it ſo, Mr. [John] Evelyn ſtudied Phyſiognomy, and found diſſimulation, boldneſs, cruelty and ambition in every touch and ſtroke of [Isaac] Fuller's picture of Oliver Cromvvell's face, vvhich he ſays, vvas the moſt reſembling portrait of the Protector.
      1. (linguistics) A line making up a written character; specifically, a Chinese, Japanese, or Korean character.
      2. (typography)
        1. (computing) In Unicode: the formal name of the individual horizontal strikethroughs (as in "A̶").
        2. (Britain) The oblique, slash, or virgule ("/").
          • 2006 February 3, Graham Linehan, “Calamity Jen”, in The IT Crowd, season 1, episode 2:
            Subject: Fire. Dear Sir-stroke-Madam: I am writing to inform you of a fire which has broken out at the premises of … No. That's too formal.
    6. A distinctive expression in a written composition; a touch. [from 17th c.]
      to give some finishing strokes to an essay
    7. (chiefly archaic) Influence; power.
      1. (professional wrestling) Backstage influence.
    8. (turn-based games) A masterful or effective action.
      Synonym: masterstroke
      • 1817, François-André Danican Philidor (translated), Studies of Chess, Samuel Bagster, page 106:
        To enable any other piece to effect the decisive stroke, a greater number of facilities, arising either from the coöperation of partisans, or the obstruction of the adverse king by his own pieces, must conspire in proportion to the assailant's class.
      • 1889, Wilhelm Steinitz, The Modern Chess Instructor, G. P. Putnam's sons, page 29:
        Black gives the opponent and opportunity for a beautiful combination stroke. But his game was anyhow very bad already, for in answer to QR—R sq., which was about his only other alternative, White would have replied Kt—R5 with an irresistible attack.
  4. (medicine) The loss of brain function arising when the blood supply to the brain is suddenly interrupted.
    Synonyms: cerebrovascular accident, CVA
    suffer a stroke
  5. (sciences) An individual discharge of lightning, particularly if causing damage.
    A flash of lightning may be made up of several strokes. If they are separated by enough time for the eye to distinguish them, the lightning will appear to flicker.
  6. (obsolete)
    1. The effect or result of a striking; affliction or injury; a bruise or wound; soreness.
    2. Chiefly in to have a good stroke: appetite.
      • 1699, William Dampier, “Of the Government of Tonquin. []”, in Voyages and Descriptions. Vol. II. [], London: [] James Knapton, [], OCLC 71352414, part I (His Voyage from Achin in Sumatra, to Tonquin, []), page 71:
        [N]either can any man be entertain'd as a Soldier, that has not a greater ſtroke than ordinary at eating: for by this they judge of his ſtrength and conſtitution.
      • 1731 (date written), Simon Wagstaff [pseudonym; Jonathan Swift], “Dialogue II”, in A Complete Collection of Genteel and Ingenious Conversation, According to the Most Polite Mode and Method Now Used at Court and in the Best Companies of England. [], London: [] B[enjamin] Motte, and C. Bathurst, [], published 1738, OCLC 181801198, page 150:
        Lady Answ[erall]. God bleſs you, Colonel; you have a good Stroke vvith you. / Col[onel Atwit]. O Madam; formerly I could eat all, but novv I leave nothing; I eat but one Meal a Day.
      • 1893–1894, Oliver Heslop, “OWEREAT”, in Northumberland Words: A Glossary of Words Used in the County of Northumberland and on the Tyneside, volume II, London: For the English Dialect Society by Henry Frowde, Oxford University Press, [], OCLC 847136074, page 518:
        Rooks are said to be fattest when food is scarcest, as they "owereat thorsels" when they have too much food. The same is said of lean children who have a good stroke (appetite).
      • a. 1968 (date written), Walter Macken, “The Dreamer”, in The Grass of the People, Dingle, Co. Kerry: Brandon, published 1998, →ISBN, page 212:
        It distressed him, Joe said, to see them feeding like animals, without delicacy. Joe had a good stroke himself, but naturally not as good an appetite as he would have if he was doing anything.
      • 1995, John B[rendan] Keane, “Something Drastic”, in The Voice of an Angel and Other Christmas Stories, Dublin: Mercier Press, →ISBN, page 88:
        It was said of him that he had a good stroke which simply meant in the everyday idiom of the place that he was possessed of a healthy appetite.
    3. (medicine) A sudden attack of any illness, especially if causing loss of consciousness or movement, or when fatal.
      a stroke of apoplexy
    4. (music) A bow or pluck of a string or strings of a stringed instrument; also, the manner in which a musical instrument is played; hence, a melody, a tune.
Alternative forms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Verb[edit]

stroke (third-person singular simple present strokes, present participle stroking, simple past and past participle stroked)

  1. (transitive)
    1. To draw the horizontal line across the upright part (of the letter t).
    2. Followed by out or through: to draw a line or lines through (text) to indicate that it is deleted; to cancel, to strike or strike out.
    3. (poetic, rare) Of a bell or clock: to chime or sound to indicate (the hour, the time, etc.).
    4. (rare) To mark (something) with lines or stripes; to stripe.
    5. (ball games) To hit or kick (the ball) with a flowing or smooth motion; also, to score (a goal, a point, etc.) by doing so.
    6. (rowing)
      1. Of a rower or a crew: to row at (a rate of a certain number of strokes (movements of the oar through water) per minute).
      2. To act as the stroke (rower who is nearest the stern of the boat, the movement of whose oar sets the rowing rhythm for the other rowers) of (a boat or its crew).
        to stroke a boat
    7. (swimming) To strike (the water) with one's arms and legs when swimming.
    8. (obsolete) To depict (something) with a paintbrush.
  2. (intransitive)
    1. (medicine) Chiefly followed by out: to suffer loss of brain function when the blood supply to the brain is suddenly interrupted; to have a stroke (noun sense 4).
    2. (swimming) To swim by making co-ordinated movements with the arms and legs.
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

The verb is derived from Middle English stroken, straken (to caress, fondle, pat, rub, smooth, stroke; to pass something over (someone or something); to brush or rub against;) [and other forms],[6] from Old English strācian (to stroke), from Proto-West Germanic *straikōn (to caress, stroke), from *straik (a line, stroke; a dash) (see further at etymology 1) + *-ōn (suffix forming verbs from nouns).[5][7]

The noun is derived from the verb.[3][8]

Verb[edit]

stroke (third-person singular simple present strokes, present participle stroking, simple past and past participle stroked) (transitive)

  1. To move one's hand or an object (such as a broom or brush) along (a surface) in one direction, touching it lightly; to caress.
  2. (also figuratively) To bring (something) to a certain condition by stroking (sense 1).
  3. (figuratively)
    1. (especially psychoanalysis) To give assurance to (someone) through encouragement.
    2. (by extension, chiefly US, politics) To influence (someone) by convincing or flattering them.
  4. (agriculture) To milk (a cow or other animal); especially, to squeeze the teat of (a cow, etc.) to extract the last bit of milk from the udder; to strap (dialectal), to strip.
  5. (masonry) To give a finely fluted surface to (stone) by carving it with a tool.
  6. (obsolete)
    1. To sharpen (a knife or other cutting instrument) by honing or rubbing it against a surface.
    2. (figuratively) To soothe (someone); also, to flatter or indulge (someone).
Conjugation[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Noun[edit]

stroke (plural strokes)

  1. An act of moving one's hand or an object along a surface in one direction, touching it lightly; a caress.
    She gave the cat a stroke.
  2. (figuratively)
    1. A gesture of assurance given as encouragement; specifically (psychoanalysis) in transactional analysis: a (generally positive) reaction expressed to a person which fulfils their desires or needs.
      • 2009, Mark Widdowson, Transactional Analysis: 100 Key Points and Techniques (page 246)
        Not providing a stroke to a client can sometimes facilitate the client in becoming aware of their neediness or desire for approval. By not giving a stroke, the client's need is brought to the surface, where it is amenable to change, []
    2. (chiefly US) A flattering or friendly act, comment, etc., done or made to a person to influence them.
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ strōk(e, n.”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
  2. ^ Compare “stroke, n.1”, in OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, September 2022.
  3. 3.0 3.1 stroke, n.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–2022.
  4. ^ stroke, v.2”, in OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, March 2022.
  5. 5.0 5.1 stroke, v.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–2022.
  6. ^ strōken, v.”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
  7. ^ Compare “stroke, v.1”, in OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, March 2022.
  8. ^ stroke, n.2”, in OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, March 2022.

Further reading[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Hungarian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from English stroke.[3]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [ˈstroːk] (phonetic respelling: sztrók)[4]
  • Hyphenation: stroke
  • Rhymes: -oːk

Noun[edit]

stroke (countable and uncountable, plural stroke-ok)

  1. (medicine) stroke (loss of brain function arising when the blood supply to the brain is suddenly interrupted or a particular case of it)
    Synonyms: agyvérzés, (archaic) agyszélhűdés, (folksy) gutaütés, (folksy) szélütés

Declension[edit]

Inflection (stem in -o-, back harmony)
singular plural
nominative stroke stroke-ok
accusative stroke-ot stroke-okat
dative stroke-nak stroke-oknak
instrumental stroke-kal stroke-okkal
causal-final stroke-ért stroke-okért
translative stroke-ká stroke-okká
terminative stroke-ig stroke-okig
essive-formal stroke-ként stroke-okként
essive-modal
inessive stroke-ban stroke-okban
superessive stroke-on stroke-okon
adessive stroke-nál stroke-oknál
illative stroke-ba stroke-okba
sublative stroke-ra stroke-okra
allative stroke-hoz stroke-okhoz
elative stroke-ból stroke-okból
delative stroke-ról stroke-okról
ablative stroke-tól stroke-októl
non-attributive
possessive - singular
stroke-é stroke-oké
non-attributive
possessive - plural
stroke-éi stroke-okéi
Possessive forms of stroke
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. stroke-om stroke-jaim
2nd person sing. stroke-od stroke-jaid
3rd person sing. stroke-ja stroke-jai
1st person plural stroke-unk stroke-jaink
2nd person plural stroke-otok stroke-jaitok
3rd person plural stroke-juk stroke-jaik

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tóth, Etelka (ed.). Magyar helyesírási szótár: A magyar helyesírás szabályai tizenkettedik kiadása szerint (’Dictionary of Hungarian Orthography: according to the 12th edition of the regulations of the Hungarian orthography’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 2017. →ISBN
  2. ^ stroke and sztrók in the dictionary of A magyar helyesírás szabályai, 12. kiadás (’The Rules of Hungarian Orthography, 12th edition’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 2015. →ISBN
  3. ^ Pusztai, Ferenc (ed.). Magyar értelmező kéziszótár (’A Concise Explanatory Dictionary of Hungarian’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 2003. 2nd, expanded and revised edition. →ISBN (The online version is available with registration for one 2-hour free trial per month.)
  4. ^ Eőry, Vilma. Értelmező szótár+ (’Explanatory Dictionary Plus’). Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó, 2007. →ISBN

Middle English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old English *strāc, from Proto-West Germanic *straik.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Northern ME, Early ME) IPA(key): /strɑːk/
  • IPA(key): /strɔːk/

Noun[edit]

stroke (plural strokes)

  1. Any striking or hitting motion:
    1. A strike or hit from a weapon or instrument of torture
    2. A strike or hit from one's hands or other limbs
    3. A strike or hit from a tool against an object.
  2. The force of death; the origin or effect of one's demise.
  3. (Late Middle English) The feeling of an intense emotion or mood.
  4. (Late Middle English) The process of making a striking or hitting motion.
  5. A loud sound caused by weather (e.g. heavy rain)
  6. The result of a striking or hitting motion; a wound.
  7. (rare) A jerking or pulsing motion (e.g. a heartbeat)
Related terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
  • English: stroke
  • Scots: strake, straik, strak
  • Yola: stroke
References[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old English strācian, from Proto-West Germanic *straikōn.

Verb[edit]

stroke

  1. Alternative form of stroken

Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Verb[edit]

stroke

  1. past participle of stryka

Swedish[edit]

Noun[edit]

stroke c

  1. (medicine) a stroke
    Synonym: slaganfall

Declension[edit]

Declension of stroke 
Uncountable
Indefinite Definite
Nominative stroke stroken
Genitive strokes strokens

References[edit]


Yola[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle English stroke, from Old English *strāc, from Proto-West Germanic *straik.

Noun[edit]

stroke

  1. stroke
    • 1867, “SONG”, in SONGS, ETC. IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, number 4:
      A vursth stroke hea strooke
      The first stroke he struck

References[edit]

  • Jacob Poole (1867), William Barnes, editor, A Glossary, With some Pieces of Verse, of the old Dialect of the English Colony in the Baronies of Forth and Bargy, County of Wexford, Ireland, London: J. Russell Smith, page 108