From Middle English ston, stone, stan, from Old English stān, from Proto-West Germanic *stain, from Proto-Germanic *stainaz (compare Dutch steen, German Stein, Danish and Swedish sten, Norwegian stein), from Proto-Indo-European *steyh₂- (“to stiffen”) (compare Russian стена́ (stená, “wall”), Ancient Greek στία (stía, “pebble”), στέαρ (stéar, “tallow”), Persian ستون (sotūn, “pillar”), Albanian shtëng (“hardened or pressed matter”), Sanskrit स्त्यायते (styāyate, “it hardens”)). Doublet of stein.
- (Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /stəʊn/
Audio (RP) (file)
- (General American) IPA(key): /stoʊn/
Audio (US) (file)
- (New Zealand) IPA(key): /stɐʉn/
- Rhymes: -əʊn
- (uncountable) A hard earthen substance that can form large rocks.
- c. 1606, William Shakespeare, “The Tragedie of Macbeth”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies […] (First Folio), London: […] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act IV, scene i], page 143, column 2:
- Toad, that vnder cold ſtone, / Dayes and Nights ha’s thirty one: / Sweltred Venom ſleeping got, / Boyle thou firſt i’th’ charmed pot.
- 1858, Edward Thornton, A Gazetteer of the Territories Under the Government of the East India Company and of the Native States on the Continent of India, W. H. Allen & Co., page 22:
- It is about 2,500 yards in circuit, is built of red stone, and, according to Von Orlich, is now " a bastioned quinquangle ; the ancient walls with semicircular bastions face the two streams ; the land side is quite regular, and consists of two bastions, and a half-bastion with three ravelins," and stands higher than any ground in face of it.
- 2013 June 8, “Obama goes troll-hunting”, in The Economist, volume 407, number 8839, page 55:
- The solitary, lumbering trolls of Scandinavian mythology would sometimes be turned to stone by exposure to sunlight. Barack Obama is hoping that several measures announced on June 4th will have a similarly paralysing effect on their modern incarnation, the patent troll.
- A small piece of stone, a pebble.
- A gemstone, a jewel, especially a diamond.
- c. 1593, William Shakespeare, “The Tragedy of Richard the Third: […]”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies […] (First Folio), London: […] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act I, scene iv], page 180, column 1:
- […] Ineſtimable Stones, vnvalewed Iewels […]
- (Britain, plural: stone) A unit of mass equal to 14 pounds (≈6.3503 kilograms), formerly used for various commodities (wool, cheese, etc., but now principally used for personal weight
- (botany) The central part of some fruits, particularly drupes; consisting of the seed and a hard endocarp layer.
- a peach stone
- (medicine) A hard, stone-like deposit.
- (board games) A playing piece made of any hard material, used in various board games such as backgammon, and go.
- A dull light grey or beige, like that of some stones.
- (curling) A 42-pound, precisely shaped piece of granite with a handle attached, which is bowled down the ice.
- A monument to the dead; a gravestone or tombstone.
- (obsolete) A mirror, or its glass.
- c. 1603–1606, William Shakespeare, “The Tragedie of King Lear”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies […] (First Folio), London: […] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act V, scene iii], page 309, column 1:
- She's dead as earth: Lend me a Looking-glaſſe; / If that her breath will miſt or ſtaine the ſtone, / Why then ſhe liues.
- (obsolete) A testicle of an animal.
- c. 1591–1595, William Shakespeare, “The Tragedie of Romeo and Ivliet”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies […] (First Folio), London: […] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act I, scene iii], page 56, column 1:
- […] and yet I warrant it had vpon it brow, a bumpe as big as a young Cockrels ſtone?
- 1750, W[illiam] Ellis, The Country Housewife's Family Companion […] , London: James Hodges; B. Collins, OCLC 837728611, page 157:
- To make Capons […] ſome for this Purpoſe make it their Buſineſs after Harveſt-time to go to Markets for buying up Chickens, and between Michaelmas and All-hollantide caponize the Cocks, when they have got large enough to have Stones of ſuch a Bigneſs that they may be pulled out; for if they are too little, it can't be done.
- (printing, historical) A stand or table with a smooth, flat top of stone, commonly marble, on which to arrange the pages of a book, newspaper, etc. before printing.
- Synonym: imposing stone
All countable senses use the plural stones except the British unit of mass, which uses the invariant plural stone.
- (substance): rock
- (small piece of stone): pebble
- (unit of mass): petra
- (of fruit): pip, pit
- (hard stone-like deposit): calculus
- (curling piece): rock
- The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.
- (transitive) To pelt with stones, especially to kill by pelting with stones.
- She got stoned to death after they found her.
- (transitive) To wall with stones.
- 1974, Mathias Peter Harpin, Prophets in the wilderness: a history of Coventry, Rhode Island:
- […] and since it was a rule of the French troops not to be a burden on the people along their route it could be that the advance guard dug and stoned the well for the troop's own special use.
- (transitive) To remove a stone from (fruit etc.).
- (intransitive) To form a stone during growth, with reference to fruit etc.
- (transitive, slang) To intoxicate, especially with narcotics. (Usually in passive)
- (intransitive, Singapore, slang) To do nothing, to stare blankly into space and not pay attention when relaxing or when bored.
- 2003, Roger, Joy, Vera and Amanda Loh, Facts about Singapore: Differences between Ohio and Singapore:
- I was stoning the whole of today.
- 2011 November 2, Shermaine Ong, (Please provide the book title or journal name):
- Resume writing class lesson 2, stoning.
- 2015 April 8, Becky Osawa, Trekking with Becky: Stoning at the Marina Barrage, Singapore:
- The Marina Barrage is a reservoir, but everyone goes there because the spacious greenery at the top is the perfect place for stoning, which is Singlish for hanging out and chilling.
- (transitive) To lap with an abrasive stone to remove surface irregularities.
- (pelt with stones): lapidate
- (do nothing, just relaxing): chill, chillax, chill out, hang out, rilek
- (do nothing, stare into space): daydream, veg out
stone (not comparable)
- Constructed of stone.
- stone walls
- Synonym: (archaic) stonen
- Having the appearance of stone.
- stone pot
- Of a dull light grey or beige, like that of some stones.
- (African-American Vernacular) Used as an intensifier.
- She is one stone fox.
- 1994, Born Bad: Stories:
- Yeah, he's a stone fuck–up. But he's stand–up, too, don't forget that.
- 2001, Andrew H. Vachss, Pain Management:
- “And I got the best metal man in the business going for me, too.” “This job's going to be a stone motherfucker,” Flacco said
- 2009, John Lutz, Night Victims, page 307:
- He might be a stone killer who simply doesn't care if his victim's alive or dead at the time of disfigurement.
- (LGBT) Willing to give sexual pleasure but not to receive it.
- stone butch; stone femme
- Antonym: pillow princess
stone (not comparable)
- As a stone (used with following adjective).
- My father is stone deaf. This soup is stone cold.
- (slang) Absolutely, completely (used with following adjectives).
- I went stone crazy after she left.
- I said the medication made my vision temporarily blurry, it did not make me stone blind.
- Bath stone
- Big Stone County
- Black Stone
- Blarney Stone
- cast the first stone
- china stone
- cinnamon stone
- curling stone
- drystone, dry-stone
- foundation stone
- Four Shire Stone
- guard stone
- hard as stone
- hunger stone
- kidney stone
- kill two birds with one stone
- leave no stone unturned
- paving stone
- Philosopher's Stone, Philosophers' Stone
- pizza stone
- precious stone
- pudding stone
- rolling stone
- Rosetta Stone
- sink like a stone
- Smithfield stone
- standing stone
- stepping stone
- Stone Age
- stone bass
- stone boat
- stone butch
- stone circle
- stone-cold, stone cold
- Stone County
- stone crab
- stone curlew
- stone-dead, stone dead
- stone-deaf, stone deaf
- stone femme
- stone frigate
- stone fruit
- stoneground, stone-ground
- stone hands
- stone lily
- stone marten
- stone mint
- stone parsley
- stone pine
- stone pit
- stone shoot
- stone's throw
- stone the crows
- stone wall
- stone xylophone
- throw stones
- turn to stone
stone (plural stones)
- stoned (high on drugs)
- Alternative form of