stone

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See also: Stone

English[edit]

English Wikipedia has an article on:
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 stone (disambiguation) on Wikipedia
Stones.

Etymology[edit]

From Middle English stone, ston, stan, from Old English stān, from Proto-Germanic *stainaz (compare Dutch steen, German Stein, Danish and Swedish sten, Norwegian stein), from Proto-Indo-European *steyh₂- (to stiffen) (compare Russian стена́ (stená, wall), Ancient Greek στία (stía, pebble), στέαρ (stéar, tallow), Persian ستون(sotūn, pillar), Albanian shtëng (hardened or pressed matter), Sanskrit स्त्यायते (styāyate, it hardens)).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

stone (countable and uncountable, plural stones or stone) (see usage notes)

  1. (uncountable) A hard earthen substance that can form large rocks.
    • 1858, Edward Thornton, A Gazetteer of the Territories Under the Government of the East India Company and of the Native States on the Continent of India[1], W. H. Allen & Co., page 22:
      It is about 2,500 yards in circuit, is built of red stone, and, according to Von Orlich, is now " a bastioned quinquangle ; the ancient walls with semicircular bastions face the two streams ; the land side is quite regular, and consists of two bastions, and a half-bastion with three ravelins," and stands higher than any ground in face of it.
    • 2013 June 8, “Obama goes troll-hunting”, in The Economist, volume 407, number 8839, page 55:
      The solitary, lumbering trolls of Scandinavian mythology would sometimes be turned to stone by exposure to sunlight. Barack Obama is hoping that several measures announced on June 4th will have a similarly paralysing effect on their modern incarnation, the patent troll.
  2. A small piece of stone, a pebble.
  3. A gemstone, a jewel, especially a diamond.
  4. (Britain, plural: stone) A unit of mass equal to 14 pounds. Used to measure the weights of people, animals, cheese, wool, etc. 1 stone ≈ 6.3503 kilograms
    • 1843, The Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, page 202:
      Seven pounds make a clove, 2 cloves a stone, 2 stone a tod, 6 1/2 tods a wey, 2 weys a sack, 12 sacks a last. [...] It is to be observed here that a sack is 13 tods, and a tod 28 pounds, so that the sack is 364 pounds.
    • 1882, James Edwin Thorold Rogers, A History of Agriculture and Prices in England, volume 4, page 209:
      Generally, however, the stone or petra, almost always of 14 lbs., is used, the tod of 28 lbs., and the sack of thirteen stones.
  5. (botany) The central part of some fruits, particularly drupes; consisting of the seed and a hard endocarp layer.
    a peach stone
  6. (medicine) A hard, stone-like deposit.
    kidney stone
  7. (board games) A playing piece made of any hard material, used in various board games such as backgammon, and go.
  8. A dull light grey or beige, like that of some stones.
    stone colour:  
  9. (curling) A 42-pound, precisely shaped piece of granite with a handle attached, which is bowled down the ice.
  10. A monument to the dead; a gravestone or tombstone.
    • 1717, Alexander Pope, Eloisa to Abelard:
      Should some relenting eye / Glance on the stone where our cold relics lie.
    • (Can we date this quote by Zayn Malik and provide title, author's full name, and other details?)
      Seems to me that when I die these words will be written on my stone
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Gray to this entry?)
  11. (obsolete) A mirror, or its glass.
  12. (obsolete) A testicle.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Shakespeare to this entry?)
    • 1750, W[illiam] Ellis, The Country Housewife's Family Companion: Or Profitable Directions for Whatever Relates to the Management and Good Œconomy of the Domestick Concerns of a Country Life, According to the Present Practice of the Country Gentleman's, the Yeoman's, the Farmer's, &c. Wives, in the Counties of Hertford, Bucks, and Other Parts of England: Shewing how Great Savings may be Made in Housekeeping: [...] With Variety of Curious Matters [...] The Whole Founded on Near Thirty Years Experience, London: Printed for James Hodges, at the Looking-glass, facing St. Magnus Church, London-Bridge; and B. Collins, bookseller, at Salisbury, OCLC 837728611, page 157:
      To make Capons [] [S]ome for this Purpoſe make it their Buſineſs after Harveſt-time to go to Markets for buying up Chickens, and between Michaelmas and All-hollantide caponize the Cocks, when they have got large enough to have Stones of ſuch a Bigneſs that they may be pulled out; for if they are too little, it can't be done; [] [M]aking a Cut here big enough to put her Finger in, which ſhe thruſts under the Guts, and with it rakes or tears out the Stone that lies neareſt to it. This done, ſhe performs the very ſame Operation on the other Side of the Cock's Body, and there takes out the other Stone; then ſhe ſtitches up the Wounds, and lets the Fowl go about as at other Times, till the Capon is fatted in a Coup, which is commonly done from Chriſtmas to Candlemas, and after.
  13. (dated, printing) A stand or table with a smooth, flat top of stone, commonly marble, on which to arrange the pages of a book, newspaper, etc. before printing; also called imposing stone.

Usage notes[edit]

All countable senses use the plural stones except the British unit of mass, which uses the invariant plural stone.

Synonyms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Sranan Tongo: ston
  • Esperanto: ŝtono

Translations[edit]

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout#Translations.

Verb[edit]

stone (third-person singular simple present stones, present participle stoning, simple past and past participle stoned)

  1. (transitive) To pelt with stones, especially to kill by pelting with stones.
    She got stoned to death after they found her.
  2. (transitive) To wall with stones.
    • 1974, Mathias Peter Harpin, Prophets in the wilderness: a history of Coventry, Rhode Island:
      [] and since it was a rule of the French troops not to be a burden on the people along their route it could be that the advance guard dug and stoned the well for the troop's own special use.
  3. (transitive) To remove a stone from (fruit etc.).
  4. (intransitive) To form a stone during growth, with reference to fruit etc.
  5. (transitive, slang) To intoxicate, especially with narcotics. (Usually in passive)
  6. (intransitive, Singapore, slang) To do nothing, to stare blankly into space and not pay attention when relaxing or when bored.
    • 2003, Roger, Joy, Vera and Amanda Loh, Facts about Singapore: Differences between Ohio and Singapore:
      I was stoning the whole of today.
    • 2011 November 2, Shermaine Ong, (Please provide the book title or journal name):
      Resume writing class lesson 2, stoning.
    • 2015 April 8, Becky Osawa, Trekking with Becky: Stoning at the Marina Barrage, Singapore:
      The Marina Barrage is a reservoir, but everyone goes there because the spacious greenery at the top is the perfect place for stoning, which is Singlish for hanging out and chilling.
  7. (transitive) To lap with an abrasive stone to remove surface irregularities.

Synonyms[edit]

Translations[edit]

Adjective[edit]

stone (not comparable)

  1. Constructed of stone.
    stone walls
    Synonym: stonen
  2. Having the appearance of stone.
    stone pot
  3. Of a dull light grey or beige, like that of some stones.
  4. (African-American Vernacular) Used as an intensifier.
    She is one stone fox.
    • 1994, Born Bad: Stories:
      Yeah, he's a stone fuck–up. But he's stand–up, too, don't forget that.
    • 1999, Mercedes Lackey, Larry Dixon, The Chrome Borne:
      If travel was this difficult, it was going to make escaping a stone bitch.
    • 2001, Andrew H. Vachss, Pain Management:
      “And I got the best metal man in the business going for me, too.” “This job's going to be a stone motherfucker,” Flacco said
    • 2004, K'Wan Foye, Street dreams, page 175:
      The man who had broken up their little party was a stone gangsta.
    • 2007, David Housewright, Dead Boyfriends, page 178:
      Back then most men would have described you as being a stone babe.
    • 2007, J. D. Robb, Born In Death:
      Her widower father married my stone bitch of a mother when I was about fourteen.
    • 2008, A. James, St. Martin's Academy: The Gifted Rule, page 64:
      “Well, Bradley Wreede told Moiré George who told Julia Nickols who told Katie Kimber who told that big stone dude who told...."
    • 2009, John Lutz, Night Victims, page 307:
      He might be a stone killer who simply doesn't care if his victim's alive or dead at the time of disfigurement.
  5. (LGBT) Willing to give sexual pleasure but not to receive it.
    stone butch; stone femme
    Antonym: pillow princess

Translations[edit]

Adverb[edit]

stone (not comparable)

  1. As a stone (used with following adjective).
    My father is stone deaf. This soup is stone cold.
  2. (slang) Absolutely, completely (used with following adjectives).
    I went stone crazy after she left.
    I said the medication made my vision temporarily blurry, it did not make me stone blind.
    The Stylistics performed a love song titled "I'm Stone in Love with You".

Translations[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


French[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

stone (plural stones)

  1. stoned (high on drugs)

Middle English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old English stān, from Proto-Germanic *stainaz.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

stone (plural stones or stone or (Early ME, rare) stonen)

  1. A stone, boulder, or pebble:
    • c. 1395, John Wycliffe, John Purvey [et al.], transl., Bible (Wycliffite Bible (later version), MS Lich 10.)‎[2], published c. 1410, Apocalips 6:16, page 119v, column 1; republished as Wycliffe's translation of the New Testament, Lichfield: Bill Endres, 2010:
      .· ⁊ þei ſeien to hillis and to ſtoonys falle ȝe on us ⁊ hide ȝe vs fro þe face of hi[m] þat ſittiþ on the troone.· ⁊ fro þe wraþþe of þe lomb ·
      And they said to hills and rocks: "Fall on us and hide us from the face of the one that sits on the throne and from the wrath of the lamb [] "
    1. A millstone or whetstone.
    2. A pebble used in a slingshot.
  2. A solid mass resembling stone, especially:
    1. A piece of hail, a hailstone
    2. A kidney stone or gallstone
    3. A pit (the hard seed of a fruit)
    4. A jewel or precious crystal
    5. (colloquial) A testicle.
  3. Stone as a material (especially in construction)
  4. A stone structure or monument, especially a tomb or tombstone.
  5. A stone (unit of mass)

Related terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]