se

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Translingual[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

se

  1. (ISO country codes) Sweden

English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Mandarin ().

Pronunciation[edit]

IPA(key): /sɛ/

Noun[edit]

se (plural ses)

  1. (music) A type of ancient Chinese plucked zither.

Translations[edit]

See se/translations § Noun.

Anagrams[edit]


Abinomn[edit]

Noun[edit]

se

  1. cloud

Afrikaans[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • s'n (used without a following noun)
  • syn (obsolete)

Etymology[edit]

From Dutch zijn, z'n (his, its). An Afrikaans innovation is the use of se regardless of the number or gender of the possessor, which may be due to a merger with the Dutch genitive suffix -s.

Pronunciation[edit]

Particle[edit]

se

  1. follows a noun to indicate that this noun possesses that which follows, much like English 's
    Dis my ouma se huis. — This is my grandmother’s house.

See also[edit]


Albanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Albanian *tśe(i), *tśi from Proto-Indo-European *kwe-, *kw(e)i- (how, what). Interrogative and relative pronoun, especially in connection with a preposition.

Pronunciation[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

se

  1. that, as, when
    Më duket se ke nevojë për disa shokë të rinj. — It seems to me that you need some new friends.
    Im vëlla më tha se don të bisedojë me ty rreth librit të ri. — My brother told me that he wants to talk to you about the new book.

Related terms[edit]


Bonan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Mongolic *usun.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

se

  1. water

References[edit]

  • Üjiyediin Chuluu (Chaolu Wu), Introduction, Grammar, and Sample Sentences for Baoan, SINO-PLATONIC PAPERS (Department of East Asian Languages and Civilizations, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA), November 1994
  • Henry G. Schwarz, The Minorities of Northern China: A Survey (1984), page 140: 'water' Daur os

Breton[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. that, this
    Petra eo se? — What's that?

Catalan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin , from Proto-Indo-European *swé (reflexive pronoun).

Pronoun[edit]

se (enclitic, contracted 's, proclitic es, contracted proclitic s')

  1. himself, herself, itself (direct or indirect object)
  2. oneself (direct or indirect object)
  3. themselves (direct or indirect object)
  4. each other (direct or indirect object)

Usage notes[edit]

The use of se and other direct personal pronouns can indicate the passive in Catalan.

Declension[edit]


Central Huasteca Nahuatl[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Numeral[edit]

se

  1. (it is) one in number.

Cimbrian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • ze (Sette Comuni)

Etymology[edit]

From Middle High German si(e) (they), merged from Old High German sie m pl, sio f pl, siu n pl, from Proto-Germanic *īz m, *ijôz f, *ijō n, the nominative plural forms of *iz. Cognate with German sie, Dutch zij.

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. (Luesrna) they

Inflection[edit]

Personal pronouns
singular plural
1st person i biar
2nd person du iar
3rd person er, si, 'z se

References[edit]


Czech[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *sę.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /sɛ/
  • (file)

Pronoun[edit]

se (reflexive pronoun)

  1. (accusative) oneself (clitic form of reflexive pronoun sebe)
    myself
    yourself
    himself
    herself
    itself
    ourselves
    yourselves
    themselves

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Preposition[edit]

se (also s)

  1. with

Further reading[edit]

  • se in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • se in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989

Dalmatian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin .

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. (reflexive) oneself

Danish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Danish se, from Old Norse (East) *sēa, (Old Norse (West) sjá), from Proto-Germanic *sehwaną, cognate with English see, German sehen. From Proto-Indo-European *sekʷ- (to see, notice).

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

se (imperative se, infinitive at se, present tense ser, past tense , perfect tense har set)

  1. to see
  2. (reciprocal passive) to see each other

Conjugation[edit]

reciprocal


Dimasa[edit]

Numeral[edit]

  1. one

Esperanto[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Italian se, influenced by French si and Latin .

Pronunciation[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

se

  1. if

Ewe[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

se (plural sewo)

  1. law

Fala[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Portuguese se, sse, from Latin , from Proto-Indo-European *se-.

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. used for passive constructions with transitive verbs and undetermined agent (equivalent to one)
    • 2000, Domingo Frades Gaspar, Vamus a falal: Notas pâ coñocel y platical en nosa fala, Editora regional da Extremadura, Theme II, Chapter 2: Recunquista:
      Non poemos analizar con pormenoris estis siglos, pero tampoco se debi toleral que, sin fundamentus, se poña en duda algo que a Historia documentá nos lega sobre nossa terra.
      We can’t thoroughly analyse these centuries, but one mustn’t tolerate that, unfoundedly, something documented history tells us about our land be questioned.
  2. reflexive and reciprocal: oneself, himself, herself, itself, themselves, yourself; each other, one another
    • 2000, Domingo Frades Gaspar, Vamus a falal: Notas pâ coñocel y platical en nosa fala, Editora regional da Extremadura, Anexu: A Porcá:
      Cumían algu de herba por camiñus, se bañaban i os devulvían a casa por as tardis.
      They ate some pasture along the way, bathed themselves and were returned to their home in the afternoon.

Synonyms[edit]

  • (reflexive): -si

Faroese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

se n (genitive singular ses, plural se)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter C.

Declension[edit]

Declension of se
n4 singular plural
indefinite definite indefinite definite
nominative se seið se seini
accusative se seið se seini
dative se, sei senum seum seunum
genitive ses sesins sea seanna

Fijian[edit]

Noun[edit]

se

  1. flower
  2. gills

Finnish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *se, from Proto-Uralic *śe. For plural forms, see etymology of ne.

The oblique stem si- is seen in some forms and is also found in other Finnic languages, such as the following cognates of the partitive singular sitä: Karelian sitä, Livvi sittäh, Veps sidä, Votic sitä. This is possibly a remnant of the original expected form **si (due to final e > i) which was reversed in some forms, possibly as influence from the plural ne.

The stem sii- seen in internal locative case forms may have been generalized from the plural forms as a means to distinguish from partitive/essive sitä, sinä; expected internal locative cases *sissä, *sistä may have been avoided as a dissimilation. Compare Veps siš (inessive singular of se).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈse/, [ˈs̠e̞]
  • Rhymes: -e
  • Syllabification: se

Pronoun[edit]

se (stem se-, also si-, and sii-, see below)

  1. (demonstrative) it
  2. (demonstrative) that (when the speaker does not point at the thing, either physically or mentally)
  3. (colloquial and dialectal) he, she
  4. (colloquial) the (as a definite article; see the usage notes below)

Usage notes[edit]

  • Due to the influence of Germanic languages, and nowadays especially to that of English, se may often be used as a kind of definite article in colloquial Finnish, though in standard Finnish it is ungrammatical, where word order expresses whether something is definite or indefinite. (Compare the usage of yksi.)
(standard) Mies tuli luokseni. → (colloquial) Se mies tuli mun luokse.
The man came to me.
(standard) Luokseni tuli mies. → (colloquial) Yks mies tuli mun luokse.
A man came to me.

Determiner[edit]

se

  1. that (not pointed at by the speaker)

Inflection[edit]

Irregular.

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Kven: se

See also[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle French se, from Old French se, from Latin , from Proto-Indo-European *swé (reflexive pronoun). See also soi.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se m or f (pre-vocalic s')

  1. The third-person reflexive and reciprocal direct and indirect object pronoun.
    1. (to) himself
    2. (to) herself
    3. (to) oneself
    4. (to) itself
    5. (to) themselves
    6. (to) each other
  2. (Louisiana) The second-person plural reflexive and reciprocal direct and indirect object pronoun.
    Je suis partie à la chasse et faut vous autres se comportes bien.I'm going hunting and y'all need to behave yourselves.

Usage notes[edit]

  • Se becomes s' before a vowel or unaspirated h, and sometimes, in nonstandard writing, in other cases where the e would be silent, e.g. in lyrics.
  • Se is often used with an actual subject, but it is also very often used with an abstract subject:
    Il est normal de se parler. — It is normal to talk to oneself.

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

See Template:French personal pronouns for other pronouns.

See also[edit]

  • The other reflexive and reciprocal direct and indirect object pronouns: me, m', te, t', nous, vous.
  • The third-person reflexive and reciprocal disjunctive pronoun: soi.

Further reading[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Galician[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Galician and Old Portuguese se (13th century, Cantigas de Santa Maria), from Latin .

Conjunction[edit]

se

  1. if

Etymology 2[edit]

See the etymology of the main entry.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. accusative/dative of si

References[edit]

  • se” in Dicionario de Dicionarios do galego medieval, SLI - ILGA 2006-2012.
  • se” in Dicionario de Dicionarios da lingua galega, SLI - ILGA 2006-2013.
  • se” in Álvarez, Rosario (coord.): Tesouro do léxico patrimonial galego e portugués, Santiago de Compostela: Instituto da Lingua Galega.

Garo[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Noun[edit]

se

  1. husband

German Low German[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Low German , variously from Old Saxon sia and Old Saxon siu, ultimately developed from forms of Proto-Germanic *hiz and possibly influenced by Proto-Germanic *sa.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /zeː/, /seː/, /zɛɪ/, /sɛɪ/

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. she
    Se is Anke. — She is Anke (Annie).

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. they
    Se kaamt ut Bremen. — They come from Bremen.
    • 1861, G. Ungt, Twee Geschichten in Mönstersk Platt. Ollmanns Jans in de Friümde un Ollmanns Jans up de Reise, page 163:
      Dao gävven5 sick de Beiden dann auk an, datt se wier by ähr keimen.6
      5 gaben – gaben sich an – strengten sich an.   6 zu ihnen kamen.

See also[edit]


Haitian Creole[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From French c'est (it is)

Verb[edit]

se

  1. to be
  2. that is (compare French c'est)
  3. it is (compare French c'est)

Usage notes[edit]

References[edit]


Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

se (clitic)

  1. Alternative form of sem.

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • (not … either, not even): se in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh: A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (’The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962.
  • ([folksy, informal] alternative form of sem): se, redirecting to sem in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh: A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (’The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962.

Ido[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Esperanto se.

Pronunciation[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

se

  1. if
    La klerko komencus laborar se ilu povus. — The clerk would begin to work if he could.
    Se me povus, me komprus altra domo. — If I could, I would buy another house.

Noun[edit]

se (plural se-i)

  1. The name of the Latin script letter S/s.

See also[edit]


Ingrian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *se, from Proto-Uralic *śe. Cognates include Finnish se and Estonian see.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. this, that
  2. it (inanimate)

Determiner[edit]

se

  1. this, that

Declension[edit]

Inflection of se
singular plural
nominative se neet
genitive senen niijjen
partitive sitä niitä
illative siihe niihe
inessive siin niiz
elative siint niist
allative sille niille
adessive sill niil
ablative silt niilt
translative siks niiks
essive sinä niin

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • V. I. Junus, Iƶoran Keelen Grammatikka[2], Leningrad: Riikin Ucebno-pedagogiceskoi Izdateljstva, 1936, page 99
  • Ruben E. Nirvi, Inkeroismurteiden Sanakirja, Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura, 1971, page 514
  • Vitalij Chernyavskij, Ižoran keel (Ittseopastaja)[3], 2005, page 16
  • Olga I. Konkova; Nikita A. Dyachinkov, Inkeroin Keel: Пособие по Ижорскому Языку[4], 2014, →ISBN, pages 13-14

Interlingua[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se (third person)

  1. Reflexive: oneself, himself, herself, itself, themselves.
    Illa se videva in le speculo.She saw herself in the mirror.
  2. Reciprocal: each other, one another.
    Quando illes se cognosceva?When did they meet (each other)?
  3. Used for passive constructions with undetermined agent (translated by "one").
    De mi casa se vide le mar.From my house the sea is seen.
    (Literally, “...the sea sees itself.”)
  4. Hence, used for expressions of the type "to get/become ...-ed".
    espaventar — “to frighten”; espaventar se = "to get frightened" (lit., "to frighten oneself")

Usage notes[edit]

  • (reflexive, reciprocal, oneself, himself, herself, itself, themselves, each other, one another): Many verbs bear a reflexive pronoun by default. Se must be replaced by me, te, etc., according to the subject.
    infiltrar se — “to infiltrate”
    repentir se — “to repent”

Istriot[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin .

Conjunction[edit]

se

  1. if
    • 1877, Antonio Ive, Canti popolari istriani: raccolti a Rovigno, volume 5, Ermanno Loescher, page 99:
      Biela, se ti vedissi li galiere
      Beautiful one, if you saw the galleys

Italian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Late Latin se, from Latin ,[1] from Proto-Indo-European *swé (reflexive pronoun).

Conjunction[edit]

se

  1. if
    Se non è vero, è ben trovato.
    If it is not true, it is a good story.
  2. whether
  3. if only
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin , from Proto-Indo-European *swé (reflexive pronoun).

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. Alternative form of si
  2. Alternative spelling of
Usage notes[edit]

Used when followed by a third-person direct object clitic (lo, la, li, le, or ne).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Angelo Prati, "Vocabolario Etimologico Italiano", Torino, 1951

Japanese[edit]

Romanization[edit]

se

  1. Rōmaji transcription of
  2. Rōmaji transcription of

Kalasha[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Sanskrit (sa), सा (), from Proto-Indo-European *só.

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. he/she/it (absent from speaker) (3rd-person personal pronoun)

Coordinate terms[edit]

See also[edit]

See Template:kls-personal pronouns for further pronouns.


Karelian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *se, from Proto-Uralic *śe. Cognates include Finnish se and Estonian see.

Pronunciation[edit]

Determiner[edit]

se

  1. this, that

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. this, that
  2. it (inanimate)

Declension[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • P. M. Zaykov, Грамматика Карельского языка (фонетика и морфология) [Grammar of the Karelian language (phonetics and morphology)], 1999, →ISBN, page 58

Kven[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Finnish se, from Proto-Finnic *se, from Proto-Uralic *śe.

Pronunciation[edit]

Determiner[edit]

se

  1. this, that

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. this, that
  2. he, she, it

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Eira Söderholm, Kvensk grammatikk, Tromsø: Cappelen Damm Akademisk, 2017, →ISBN, page 278

Ladin[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin .

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. (indefinite) one, you, we, they, people. Note: often translated using the passive voice in English.
  2. (reflexive) oneself, himself, herself, itself, themselves; (reciprocal) each other, one another. Note: With some verbs, si is not translated in English.

Lashi[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

se

  1. to know
  2. to be able to

References[edit]

  • Hkaw Luk, A grammatical sketch of Lacid[5], Chiang Mai: Payap University (master thesis), 2017

Latin[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Indo-European *swé (reflexive pronoun).

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

(accusative and ablative, no nominative)

  1. (reflexive) the accusative of the third-person singular and plural reflexive pronoun: oneself, himself, herself, itself, themselves
    Vōcālis est littera quae per sē syllabam facere potest.A vowel is a letter that can form a syllable by itself.
    Quīntus quōmodo sē habet hodiē?How's Quintus doing today? (literally, “is holding himself”)
    In mare praecipitāvit.He drowned himself in the ocean.
  2. (reflexive) the ablative of the third-person singular and plural reflexive pronoun

Usage notes[edit]

  • sēsē is very common as the emphatic form of the accusative pronoun, especially in reference to a preceding ipse, or at the beginning or the end of a clause.

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]


Ligurian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Late Latin se(d), from Latin (if) + quid (what).

Pronunciation[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

se

  1. if

Livonian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *se, from Proto-Uralic *śe. Cognates include Finnish se and Estonian see.

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. that
  2. he

Lower Sorbian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *sę.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves, oneself
  2. each other, one another
  3. used to form passives

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • se in Manfred Starosta (1999): Dolnoserbsko-nimski słownik / Niedersorbisch-deutsches Wörterbuch. Bautzen: Domowina-Verlag.

Luxembourgish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. unstressed form of si

Declension[edit]

See Template:lb-decl-personal pronouns for declension.


Malay[edit]

Malay cardinal numbers
 <  0 1 2  > 
    Cardinal : se

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Shortened form of esa, from Proto-Malayic *əsa, from Proto-Malayo-Chamic *əsa, from Proto-Malayo-Sumbawan *əsa, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *əsa, from Proto-Austronesian *əsa.

Pronunciation[edit]

Numeral[edit]

se (Jawi spelling س)

  1. one
  1. (Terengganu dialect) En

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Maltese[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Sometimes thought to have been inherited from Arabic سَ(sa), from سَوْفَ(sawfa). However, it is more likely that the similarity is entirely coincidental and that Maltese se(r) is merely a shortened form of sejjer.

Pronunciation[edit]

Particle[edit]

se

  1. Indicates a future tense.

Mandarin[edit]

Romanization[edit]

se

  1. Nonstandard spelling of .

Usage notes[edit]

  • English transcriptions of Mandarin speech often fail to distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without the appropriate indication of tone.

Middle Dutch[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. accusative of si (they)

Middle English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old English swē, swǣ, variants of swā (so). More at so.

Adverb[edit]

se

  1. so

Etymology 2[edit]

Noun[edit]

se

  1. Alternative form of see (sea)

Etymology 3[edit]

Noun[edit]

se

  1. Alternative form of see (see)

Etymology 4[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. Alternative form of sche

Middle French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old French se, from Latin .

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. The third-person reflexive and reciprocal direct object pronoun.
    1. himself
    2. herself
    3. oneself
    4. itself
    5. themselves
    6. each other
  2. The third-person reflexive and reciprocal indirect object pronoun.
    1. to himself
    2. to herself
    3. to oneself
    4. to itself
    5. to themselves
    6. to each other
      ils se donnerent bataillethey gave each other battle (they gave battle to each other)

Usage notes[edit]

  • Whether to translate as himself, herself, oneself, itself, themselves or each other depends on the gender (male, female or none) and number (singular or plural).
  • Usually becomes s' before a vowel. In older manuscripts, it becomes s- with no apostrophe.

Descendants[edit]

  • French: se

Middle Low German[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Variously from Old Saxon sia and Old Saxon siu, ultimately developed from forms of Proto-Germanic *hiz and possibly influenced by Proto-Germanic *sa.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

  1. (third person singular female nominative) she
  2. her (accusative of )
  3. (third person plural nominative) they
  4. them (accusative of )

Declension[edit]

See Template:gml-perpron for declension.

Descendants[edit]


Neapolitan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin .

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. reflexive third person pronoun: oneself, himself, itself, herself, themselves etc.

North Frisian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Frisian siā, from Proto-Germanic *sehwaną

Pronunciation[edit]

IPA(key): /sɛ/

Verb[edit]

se (present se, 2nd singular sjochst, 3rd singular sjocht, past saag, perfect sen)

  1. (Sylt) to see

Northern Kurdish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From West Iranian *spaka "dog-like, relating to dogs" (compare Old Median σπάκα (dog), Persian سگ(sag), and Old Armenian ասպակ (aspak, dog), a borrowing from Median), from Proto-Iranian [Term?] (compare Avestan 𐬯𐬞𐬁(spā), Pashto سپۍ(spəy)), from Proto-Indo-Iranian [Term?] (compare Sanskrit श्वन् (śvā́)), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *ḱwṓ.

Noun[edit]

Central Kurdish سەگ(seg)

se ?

  1. dog

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse sjá, from Proto-Germanic *sehwaną, from Proto-Indo-European *sekʷ- (to see, notice).

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

se (imperative se, present tense ser, passive ses or sees, simple past , past participle sett, present participle seende)

  1. to see (perceive with the eyes).

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]


Old English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • þēlate nom. masc. sg. form

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-West Germanic *siz, replacing earlier *sā, from Proto-Germanic *sa, from Proto-Indo-European *só.

Pronunciation[edit]

Article[edit]

  1. the
    mōnathe moon
    sēo sunnethe sun
    þæt seofonstierrethe Pleiades
    þā steorranthe stars

Determiner[edit]

  1. that
    Sele mē þone hamer.
    Give me that hammer.
    Cūðes þū þā rēadfiexan þe þū ǣr wiþ sprǣċe?
    Did you know that redhead who you were talking to earlier?

Pronoun[edit]

  1. that
    Hē fōr hām, and æfter þām ne ġeseah iċ hine nǣfre mā.
    He went home, and after that I never saw him again.
    • early 8th century, Beowulf, line 11
      Þæt wæs gōd cyning!
      That was a good king!
  2. also sometimes used (in the appropriate gender and case) to mean "he," "she," "it," "they," etc.
  3. the one / that one
    Iċ eom þe cnocaþ.
    I am the one who knocks.
    Hēo nis sēo þe þū oferreċċan þearft.
    She's not the one you need to convince.
    Rǣtst þū nū þās bōc oþþe þā?
    Are you reading this book right now or that one?
    Hwæðer is þīn, þē þæt swearte hors þē þæt hwīte?
    Which one is yours, the black horse or the white one?
  4. (relative) that, who, what
    Ne biþ eall þæt glitnaþ nā gold.
    Not everything that glitters is gold.
    • Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Manuscript E, year 605
      Þǣr man ofslōg ēac twā hund prēosta þā cōmon þæder þæt hīe sċylden ġebiddan for Wēala here. Sċromail wæs ġehāten heora ealdor, ætbærst þanon fīftiga sum.
      There two hundred priests were killed who had come to pray for the Welsh army. Scromail was the name of their leader, who was one of fifty to escape from there.
    • c. 900, King Alfred's translation of The Consolation of Philosophy
      Wel mē līcode þæt þū ǣr sæġdes.
      I really liked what you said before.

Declension[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

  • The word "the" was used somewhat more sparingly in Old English than in the modern language. One reason is, English had only recently developed a word for "the" ( previously only meant "that"), leaving many nouns and phrases which had a definite meaning but which people continued to use without a definite article out of custom. Examples of words which usually went without the word "the" include:
    • Names of peoples, such as Engle (the Angles), Seaxan (the Saxons), and Crēcas (the Greeks). Ġelīefst þū þæt Dene magon bēon oferswīðde? (“Do you believe the Danes can be defeated?”).
    • All river names. On Temese flēat ān sċip (“A boat was floating on the Thames”).
    • A few nouns denoting types of locations, namely (the sea), wudu (the woods), and eorþe (the ground). Þū fēolle on eorðan and slōge þīn hēafod (“You fell on the ground and hit your head”). Note that eorþe was often used with a definite article when it meant "the Earth."
    • "the world," whether expressed with weorold or middanġeard. Iċ fēle æt hām on ealre weorolde, þǣr þǣr sind wolcnu and fuglas and mennisċe tēaras (“I feel at home in the whole world, where there are clouds and birds and human tears”).
    • A couple abstract concepts, namely sōþ (the truth) and ǣ (the law). Iċ seċġe ēow sōþ, þæt iċ swerie (“I'm telling you the truth, I swear”).
    • Dryhten (“the Lord”).
    • morgen (the morning) and ǣfen (the evening). Iċ ārās on lætne morgen and ēode niðer (“I got up late in the morning and went downstairs”).
    • The four seasons, lengten (spring), sumor (summer), hærfest (fall), and winter (winter). On sumore hit biþ wearm and on wintra ċeald (“In the summer it's warm and in the winter it's cold”).
    • forþġewitennes (the past), andweardnes (the present), and tōweardnes (the future). Þā þe forðġewitennesse ġemunan ne magon, hīe bēoþ ġeniðrode hīe tō ġeedlǣċenne (“Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it”).
    • forma sīþ (“the first time”), ōþer sīþ (“the second time”), etc. Hwæt þōhtest þū þā þū mē forman sīðe ġemēttest? (“What did you think when you met me for the first time?”).
    • þīestra (“the dark”). Iċ āwēox, ac iċ nǣfre ne ġeswāc mē þīestra tō ondrǣdenne (“I grew up, but I never stopped being scared of the dark”).
    • Genitive phrases could include the word "the" before the head noun, but most often did not. Instead, genitive phrases were commonly formed like possessive phrases in modern English, with the genitive noun preceding the head noun ("John's car," not "the car of John"). Thus “the fall of Rome” was Rōme hryre, literally “Rome's fall,” and “the god of fire” was fȳres god, literally “fire's god.”

Descendants[edit]


Old French[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin (himself, herself, itself), accusative of reflexive pronoun.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se m or f (invariable)

  1. himself (reflexive direct and indirect third-person singular pronoun)
  2. herself (reflexive direct and indirect third-person singular pronoun)
  3. itself (reflexive direct and indirect third-person singular pronoun)
  4. oneself (reflexive direct and indirect third-person singular pronoun)
  5. themselves (reflexive direct and indirect third-person plural pronoun)
Descendants[edit]
  • French: se

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin si.

Conjunction[edit]

se

  1. if
  2. then (afterwards; following)
Descendants[edit]
  • French: si

Old Frisian[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. she
  2. they

Old Irish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Determiner[edit]

se

  1. Alternative form of so used after palatalized consonants and front vowels

Old Saxon[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *sa.

Pronunciation[edit]

Article[edit]

 m (demonstrative)

  1. definite article: the
    mānothe moon
  2. demonstrative adjective: that, those
    Hē gaf thē gift.He gave that gift.

Declension[edit]

See also[edit]


Pennsylvania German[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Compare German sie.

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. she
  2. her

Declension[edit]


Phalura[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Determiner[edit]

se (demonstrative, Perso-Arabic spelling سےۡ)

  1. the
  2. that (agr: rem fem / rem non-nom masc)

References[edit]

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem, Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[6], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, 2011, →ISBN

Etymology 2[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Determiner[edit]

se (demonstrative, Perso-Arabic spelling سےۡ)

  1. the
  2. those (agr: rem)

References[edit]

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem, Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[7], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, 2011, →ISBN

Etymology 3[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se (demonstrative, Perso-Arabic spelling سےۡ)

  1. it
  2. she (rem fem nom)

References[edit]

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem, Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[8], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, 2011, →ISBN

Etymology 4[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se (demonstrative, Perso-Arabic spelling سےۡ)

  1. they (rem nom)

References[edit]

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem, Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[9], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, 2011, →ISBN

Pilagá[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. I
    se-takeI want

References[edit]

  • 2001, Alejandra Vidal, quoted in Subordination in Native South-American Languages

Pipil[edit]

Pipil cardinal numbers
 <  0 1 2  > 
    Cardinal :
    Ordinal : achtu
    Adverbial : seujti
    Distributive : sejsē ika

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Uto-Aztecan *sɨmayV. Compare Classical Nahuatl ce (one). Cognate with Hopi suukya' (one), Shoshone seme' (one), Cahuilla súplli (one), and O'odham hema (one).

Pronunciation[edit]

Numeral[edit]

  1. one
    Nikneki semaya se
    I want only one

Article[edit]

  1. a, indefinite article
    Tikitat se tekulut tik ne kwajkwawit
    We saw an owl in the trees

Pronoun[edit]

  1. someone, something, indefinite pronoun
    Walajsik se ina ka metzishmati
    Someone came who said she/he knows you
    Se anmejemet nemi pal yawi pal kikua ne takwal
    One of you has to go to buy the food
    Ne nunan nechmakak se anmupal
    My mom gave me something for you all

Polish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. (colloquial) oneself, myself, yourself, itself, etc.
    Synonym: sobie
    Daj se z tym spokój.
    Give it a break.

Further reading[edit]

  • se in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • se in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Portuguese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Portuguese sse, se, from Latin , from Proto-Indo-European *swé (reflexive pronoun).

Pronoun[edit]

se m or f

  1. third-person singular and plural reflexive pronoun; himself; herself; itself; themself; themselves
    Ela se viu no espelho.
    She saw herself in the mirror.
  2. third-person singular and plural reciprocal pronoun; each other; one another
    Quando eles se conheceram?
    When did they meet (each other)?
  3. second-person singular and plural reflexive and reciprocal pronoun, when used with second-person pronouns other than tu and vós; yourself; yourselves
    E você se diz um professor!
    And you call yourself a teacher!
  4. forms the passive voice; be; get
    espantarto frighten
    espantar-seto get frightened (Literally, “to frighten oneself”)
    Da minha casa se vê o mar.
    The sea can be seen from my house. (Literally, "From my house oneself sees the sea.")
  5. impersonal reflexive pronoun; oneself
    Vive-se bem em Belém.
    One lives well in Belém. (Literally, *"∅ lives oneself well in Belém.")
Usage notes[edit]
  • When the verb precedes se, a hyphen must be used. In Portugal post-verb se is more common, while in Brazil it usually precedes the verb.
  • (reflexive and reciprocal): Many verb senses take a reflexive pronoun by default; they are called pronominal verbs. Se must be replaced by me, te, etc. according to the subject.
    comunicar-se (com)to communicate (with)
    arrepender-seto repent
  • Many ergative English verbs are translated by a bare verb for transitive usage and a pronominal one for intransitive:
    O professor acalmou os alunos.
    The teacher calmed the students down.
    O professor acalmou-se.
    The teacher calmed down.
Quotations[edit]

For quotations using this term, see Citations:se.

See also[edit]

See Template:Portuguese personal pronouns for further pronouns.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Portuguese se, from Latin (if).

Alternative forms[edit]

  • si (eye dialect)

Conjunction[edit]

se

  1. if (introduces a condition)
    • 2007, J. K. Rowling, Lya Wyler, Harry Potter e as Relíquias da Morte, Rocco, page 317:
      Desculpe, acho que dá mais medo se for meia-noite!
      I'm sorry, I thought it would be more fearsome if it were midnight!}}
    Se for sair, leve um guarda-chuva.
    If you go out, take an umbrella.
    Só começaremos se nos pagarem.
    We will only begin if they pay us.
    Synonym: caso
Quotations[edit]

For quotations using this term, see Citations:se.

Antonyms[edit]

Romanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin , from Proto-Indo-European *swé (reflexive pronoun).

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. (reflexive pronoun) oneself, himself, herself, itself, themselves

Related terms[edit]


Romansch[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (Rumantsch Grischun, Sursilvan) si
  • (Sutsilvan, Surmiran) sen
  • (Puter, Vallader)

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Adverb[edit]

se

  1. (Sutsilvan, Surmiran) up, upward, upwards

Rwanda-Rundi[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *cé.

Noun[edit]

 1a (plural bāsé 2a)

  1. his/her father
  2. his/her paternal uncle

Samoan[edit]

Article[edit]

se

  1. a (singular indefinite article)

See also[edit]


Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *sę.

Pronoun[edit]

Lua error: not enough memory

  1. oneself (clitic form of reflexive pronoun)
    1. myself
    2. yourself
    3. himself, herself, itself
    4. ourselves
    5. yourselves
    6. themselves
  2. Lua error: not enough memory Lua error: not enough memory
    Lua error: not enough memory
    Lua error: not enough memory
    Lua error: not enough memory
    Lua error: not enough memory
Declension[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Lua error: not enough memory.

Particle[edit]

Lua error: not enough memory

  1. Lua error: not enough memory this is; here is
    • 1404, anonymous, Kočerin tablet:
      се лежи вигань милошевиꙉь
      Here lies Viganj Milošević

Slovene[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Lua error: not enough memory.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Lua error: not enough memory

Pronoun[edit]

Lua error: not enough memory

  1. oneself: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself (accusative)
  2. ourselves, yourselves, themselves (accusative)

Inflection[edit]

See Template:sl-decl-ppron for inflection.


Spanish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Lua error: not enough memory
  • Lua error: not enough memory Lua error: not enough memory

Etymology 1[edit]

From Lua error: not enough memory, from Lua error: not enough memory.

Pronoun[edit]

Lua error: not enough memory

  1. Lua error: not enough memory oneself, himself, herself, itself, yourself; each other; one another
  2. Lua error: not enough memory Lua error: not enough memory and Lua error: not enough memory
    Lua error: not enough memory
    Lua error: not enough memory
    Lua error: not enough memory
Usage notes[edit]
  • Lua error: not enough memory Lua error: not enough memory is used as a suffix with verbs in the infinitive and imperative.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Lua error: not enough memory (from Lua error: not enough memory, compare Lua error: not enough memory, Lua error: not enough memory), whose pronunciation shifted from Lua error: not enough memory to Lua error: not enough memory in Early Modern Spanish, at which point it was reanalyzed as Lua error: not enough memory (rather than shifting to Lua error: not enough memory as expected).

Alternative forms[edit]

  • Lua error: not enough memory

Pronoun[edit]

Lua error: not enough memory

  1. Lua error: not enough memory Lua error: not enough memory and Lua error: not enough memory Lua error: not enough memory
    Lua error: not enough memory

See also[edit]

See Appendix:Spanish pronouns for an overview of Spanish pronouns and Template:es-personal pronouns for a pronoun table.

Etymology 3[edit]

Verb[edit]

Lua error: not enough memory

  1. Lua error: not enough memory

Further reading[edit]


Sranan Tongo[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Lua error: not enough memory.

Noun[edit]

Lua error: not enough memory

  1. Lua error: not enough memory

Swedish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Lua error: not enough memory, Lua error: not enough memory, Lua error: not enough memory, from Lua error: not enough memory, Lua error: not enough memory, from Lua error: not enough memory, from Lua error: not enough memory. The final -g of the past tense form was added under influence of the Old Swedish plural form Lua error: not enough memory.

Cognate with Lua error: not enough memory, Lua error: not enough memory and Lua error: not enough memory, Lua error: not enough memory, Lua error: not enough memory and Lua error: not enough memory.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Lua error: not enough memory
  • (file)
    Lua error: not enough memory
  • Lua error: not enough memory
  • Lua error: not enough memory

Verb[edit]

Lua error: not enough memory

  1. to see; use one's sight
    Lua error: not enough memory
    • 1888, August Strindberg, Fröken Julie
      Tvärtom, fröken Julie, som ni ser har jag skyndat uppsöka min övergivna!
      Quite the opposite, miss Julie, as you can see I have rushed to find my abandoned one!
    • 1915, John Wahlborg, Stjärnbanér i blågult
      Vad jag sett och hört och känt har helt enkelt överväldigat mig.
      What I have seen and heard and felt has quite simply overwhelmed me.
  2. to see; to understand
    Lua error: not enough memory
    Lua error: not enough memory
  3. to see, to visualize; to form a mental picture of

Conjugation[edit]

Lua error: not enough memory

Hypernyms[edit]

  • Lua error: not enough memory

Derived terms[edit]

  • See Lua error: not enough memory.

Related terms[edit]

  • See Lua error: not enough memory.

See also[edit]

  • See Lua error: not enough memory.

Anagrams[edit]

  • Lua error: not enough memory

Tarantino[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

Lua error: not enough memory

  1. it
  2. one

Tocharian A[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Lua error: not enough memory. Cognate with Lua error: not enough memory, Lua error: not enough memory and Lua error: not enough memory.

Noun[edit]

Lua error: not enough memory

  1. son

See also[edit]

  • See Lua error: not enough memory.

Turkish[edit]

Noun[edit]

Lua error: not enough memory

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter [[S#Lua error: not enough memory|S]].Lua error: not enough memory

Tuvaluan[edit]

Article[edit]

Lua error: not enough memory

  1. Lua error: not enough memory, Lua error: not enough memory

Veps[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Lua error: not enough memory, from Lua error: not enough memory. Cognates include Lua error: not enough memory and Lua error: not enough memory.

Pronoun[edit]

Lua error: not enough memory

  1. it

Inflection[edit]

See Template:vep-decl-se for inflection.

Determiner[edit]

Lua error: not enough memory

  1. that Lua error: not enough memory

Inflection[edit]

See Template:vep-decl-se for inflection.

Derived terms[edit]

  • Lua error: not enough memory

References[edit]

  • Lua error: not enough memory, Lua error: not enough memory; Lua error: not enough memory, Lua error: not enough memory, Lua error: not enough memory”, in Lua error: not enough memory [Lua error: not enough memory]‎[10], Petrozavodsk: Periodika, 2007

Volapük[edit]

Preposition[edit]

Lua error: not enough memory

  1. out of

Welsh[edit]

Verb[edit]

Lua error: not enough memory

  1. Lua error: not enough memory Lua error: not enough memory

West Frisian[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

Lua error: not enough memory

  1. Lua error: not enough memory

Pronoun[edit]

Lua error: not enough memory

  1. Lua error: not enough memory

Zazaki[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Lua error: not enough memory

Adverb[edit]

Lua error: not enough memory

  1. how
  2. if
  3. what

Numeral[edit]

Lua error: not enough memory

  1. hundred
  2. Lua error: not enough memory