se

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Translingual[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

se

  1. (ISO country codes) Sweden

English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Mandarin ().

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

se (plural ses)

  1. (music) A type of ancient Chinese plucked zither.

Translations[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Abinomn[edit]

Noun[edit]

se

  1. cloud

Afrikaans[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • s'n (used without a following noun)
  • syn (obsolete)

Etymology[edit]

From Dutch zijn, z'n (“his, its”). An Afrikaans innovation is the use of se regardless of the number or gender of the possessor, which may be due to a merger with the Dutch genitive suffix -s as well as, perhaps, the adjective suffix -s, -sch.

Pronunciation[edit]

Particle[edit]

se

  1. follows a noun to indicate that this noun possesses that which follows, much like English 's
    Dis my ouma se huis. — This is my grandmother’s house.

See also[edit]


Albanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Albanian *tśe(i), *tśi from Proto-Indo-European *kʷe-, *kʷ(e)i- (how, what). Interrogative and relative pronoun, especially in connection with a preposition.

Pronunciation[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

se

  1. that, as, when
    Më duket se ke nevojë për disa shokë të rinj. — It seems to me that you need some new friends.
    Im vëlla më tha se don të bisedojë me ty rreth librit të ri. — My brother told me that he wants to talk to you about the new book.

Related terms[edit]


Bonan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Mongolic *usun.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

se

  1. water

References[edit]

  • Üjiyediin Chuluu (Chaolu Wu), Introduction, Grammar, and Sample Sentences for Baoan, SINO-PLATONIC PAPERS (Department of East Asian Languages and Civilizations, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA), November 1994
  • Henry G. Schwarz, The Minorities of Northern China: A Survey (1984), page 140: 'water' Daur os

Breton[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. that, this
    Petra eo se? — What's that?

Catalan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin .

Pronoun[edit]

se (enclitic, contracted 's, proclitic es, contracted proclitic s')

  1. himself, herself, itself (direct or indirect object)
  2. oneself (direct or indirect object)
  3. themselves (direct or indirect object)
  4. each other (direct or indirect object)

Usage notes[edit]

  • -se is the full (plena) form of the pronoun. It is normally used after verbs ending with consonant or ⟨u⟩, or between some adverbs/pronouns and a verb. In some varieties of Catalan (Balearic/Valencian) it can also occur in sentence-initial position.
  • The use of se and other direct personal pronouns can indicate the passive in Catalan.

Declension[edit]


Central Huasteca Nahuatl[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Numeral[edit]

se

  1. one (number).

Central Nahuatl[edit]

Numeral[edit]

se

  1. one.

Cimbrian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • ze (Sette Comuni)

Etymology[edit]

From Middle High German si(e) (“they”), merged from Old High German sie m pl, sio f pl, siu n pl, from Proto-Germanic *īz m, *ijôz f, *ijō n, the nominative plural forms of *iz. Cognate with German sie, Dutch zij.

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. (Luserna) they

Inflection[edit]

Personal pronouns
singular plural
1st person i biar
2nd person du iar
3rd person er, si, 'z se

References[edit]


Coatepec Nahuatl[edit]

Numeral[edit]

se

  1. one.

Czech[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Czech , from Proto-Slavic *sę.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /sɛ/
  • (file)

Pronoun[edit]

se (reflexive pronoun)

  1. (accusative) oneself (clitic form of reflexive pronoun sebe)
    myself
    yourself
    himself
    herself
    itself
    ourselves
    yourselves
    themselves

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Preposition[edit]

se (also s)

  1. with

Further reading[edit]

  • se in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • se in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989

Dalmatian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin .

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. (reflexive) oneself

Danish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Danish se, from Old Norse (East) *sēa, (Old Norse (West) sjá), from Proto-Germanic *sehwaną, cognate with English see, German sehen, from Proto-Indo-European *sekʷ- (to see, notice).

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

se (imperative se, infinitive at se, present tense ser, past tense , perfect tense har set)

  1. to see
  2. (reciprocal passive) to see each other

Conjugation[edit]

reciprocal


Dimasa[edit]

Numeral[edit]

  1. one

Esperanto[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Italian se, influenced by French si and Latin .

Pronunciation[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

se

  1. if

Ewe[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

se (plural sewo)

  1. law

Fala[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Portuguese se, sse, from Latin .

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. used for passive constructions with transitive verbs and undetermined agent (equivalent to one)
    • 2000, Domingo Frades Gaspar, Vamus a falal: Notas pâ coñocel y platical en nosa fala, Editora regional da Extremadura, Theme II, Chapter 2: Recunquista:
      Non poemos analizar con pormenoris estis siglos, pero tampoco se debi toleral que, sin fundamentus, se poña en duda algo que a Historia documentá nos lega sobre nossa terra.
      We can’t thoroughly analyse these centuries, but one mustn’t tolerate that, unfoundedly, something documented history tells us about our land be questioned.
  2. reflexive and reciprocal: oneself, himself, herself, itself, themselves, yourself; each other, one another
    • 2000, Domingo Frades Gaspar, Vamus a falal: Notas pâ coñocel y platical en nosa fala, Editora regional da Extremadura, Anexu: A Porcá:
      Cumían algu de herba por camiñus, se bañaban i os devulvían a casa por as tardis.
      They ate some pasture along the way, bathed themselves and were returned to their home in the afternoon.

Synonyms[edit]

  • (reflexive): -si

Faroese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

se n (genitive singular ses, plural se)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter C.

Declension[edit]

Declension of se
n4 singular plural
indefinite definite indefinite definite
nominative se seið se seini
accusative se seið se seini
dative se, sei senum seum seunum
genitive ses sesins sea seanna

Fijian[edit]

Noun[edit]

se

  1. flower
  2. gills

Finnish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *se, from Proto-Uralic *śe. For plural forms, see etymology of ne.

The oblique stem si- is seen in some forms and is also found in other Finnic languages, such as the following cognates of the partitive singular sitä: Karelian sitä, Livvi sittäh, Veps sidä, Votic sitä. This is possibly a remnant of the original expected form **si (due to final e > i) which was reversed in some forms, possibly as influence from the plural ne.

The stem sii- seen in internal locative case forms may have been generalized from the plural forms as a means to distinguish from partitive/essive sitä, sinä; expected internal locative cases *sissä, *sistä may have been avoided as a dissimilation. Compare Veps siš (inessive singular of se).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈse/, [ˈs̠e̞]
  • Rhymes: -e
  • Syllabification: se

Pronoun[edit]

se (stems se-, si- and sii-)

  1. (demonstrative) it
  2. (demonstrative) that (when the speaker does not point at the thing, either physically or mentally)
  3. (colloquial and dialectal) he, she
  4. (colloquial) the (as a definite article; see the usage notes below)

Usage notes[edit]

  • Due to the influence of Germanic languages, and nowadays especially to that of English, se may often be used as a kind of definite article in colloquial Finnish, though in standard Finnish it is ungrammatical, where word order expresses whether something is definite or indefinite. (Compare the usage of yksi.)
(standard) Mies tuli luokseni. → (colloquial) Se mies tuli mun luokse.
The man came to me.
(standard) Luokseni tuli mies. → (colloquial) Yks mies tuli mun luokse.
A man came to me.

Determiner[edit]

se

  1. that (not pointed at by the speaker)

Inflection[edit]

Irregular.

Synonyms[edit]

  • (he or she): hän
  • see (rare, dialectal (Southwestern Finnish))

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Kven: se

See also[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle French se, from Old French se, from Latin . See also soi.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se m or f (pre-vocalic s')

  1. The third-person reflexive and reciprocal direct and indirect object pronoun.
    1. (to) himself
    2. (to) herself
    3. (to) oneself
    4. (to) itself
    5. (to) themselves
    6. (to) each other
  2. (Louisiana) The second-person plural reflexive and reciprocal direct and indirect object pronoun.
    Je suis partie à la chasse et faut vous autres se comportes bien.I'm going hunting and y'all need to behave yourselves.

Usage notes[edit]

  • Se becomes s' before a vowel or unaspirated h, and sometimes, in nonstandard writing, in other cases where the e would be silent, e.g. in lyrics.
  • Se is often used with an actual subject, but it is also very often used with an abstract subject:
    Il est normal de se parler. — It is normal to talk to oneself.

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

See Template:French personal pronouns for other pronouns.

See also[edit]

  • The other reflexive and reciprocal direct and indirect object pronouns: me, m', te, t', nous, vous.
  • The third-person reflexive and reciprocal disjunctive pronoun: soi.

Further reading[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Galician[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Galician and Old Portuguese se (13th century, Cantigas de Santa Maria), from Latin .

Conjunction[edit]

se

  1. if

Etymology 2[edit]

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. accusative/dative of si

References[edit]

  • se” in Dicionario de Dicionarios do galego medieval, SLI - ILGA 2006–2012.
  • se” in Dicionario de Dicionarios da lingua galega, SLI - ILGA 2006–2013.
  • se” in Álvarez, Rosario (coord.): Tesouro do léxico patrimonial galego e portugués, Santiago de Compostela: Instituto da Lingua Galega.

Garo[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Noun[edit]

se

  1. husband

German Low German[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Low German , variously from Old Saxon sia and Old Saxon siu, ultimately developed from forms of Proto-Germanic *hiz and possibly influenced by Proto-Germanic *sa.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /zeː/, /seː/, /zɛɪ/, /sɛɪ/

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. she
    Se is Anke. — She is Anke (Annie).

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. they
    Se kaamt ut Bremen. — They come from Bremen.
    • 1861, G. Ungt, Twee Geschichten in Mönstersk Platt. Ollmanns Jans in de Friümde un Ollmanns Jans up de Reise, page 163:
      Dao gävven5 sick de Beiden dann auk an, datt se wier by ähr keimen.6
      5 gaben – gaben sich an – strengten sich an.   6 zu ihnen kamen.

See also[edit]


Gun[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

sès

  1. to hear, to listen
  2. to understand

Haitian Creole[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From French c'est (“it is”)

Verb[edit]

se

  1. to be
  2. that is (compare French c'est)
  3. it is (compare French c'est)

Usage notes[edit]

References[edit]


Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

se (clitic)

  1. Alternative form of sem.

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • (not … either, not even): se in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh: A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (’The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962.
  • ([folksy, informal] alternative form of sem): se, redirecting to sem in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh: A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (’The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962.

Ido[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Esperanto se.

Pronunciation[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

se

  1. if
    La klerko komencus laborar se ilu povus. — The clerk would begin to work if he could.
    Se me povus, me komprus altra domo. — If I could, I would buy another house.

Noun[edit]

se (plural se-i)

  1. The name of the Latin script letter S/s.

See also[edit]


Ingrian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *se, from Proto-Uralic *śe. Cognates include Finnish se and Estonian see.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. this, that (not bound to a specific location)
    • 1936, N. A. Iljin and V. I. Junus, Bukvari iƶoroin șkouluja vart, Leningrad: Riikin Ucebno-pedagogiceskoi Izdateljstva, page 63:
      Linnuille höö siihe kagraa siputtiit.
      They sprinkled oats onto it for the birds.
    • 1936, L. G. Terehova; V. G. Erdeli, Mihailov and P. I. Maksimov, transl., Geografia: oppikirja iƶoroin alkușkoulun kolmatta klaassaa vart (ensimäine osa), Leningrad: Riikin Ucebno-Pedagogiceskoi Izdateljstva, page 7:
      Inmihiset panniit merkille i sen, etti kaik predmetat päivääl, päivytpaiston aikanna, viskajaat kupahaiset.
      People noticed this as well, that all objects during the day, being a sunny time, cast shadows.

Determiner[edit]

se

  1. this, that (not bound to a specific location)
    • 1936, N. A. Iljin and V. I. Junus, Bukvari iƶoroin șkouluja vart, Leningrad: Riikin Ucebno-pedagogiceskoi Izdateljstva, page 40:
      Peen tulo saatii siint pellost.
      A small income was received from this field.

Declension[edit]

Declension of se
singular plural
nominative se neet
genitive senen niijen
accusative sen neet
partitive sitä niitä
illative siihe niihe
inessive siin niis
elative siint niist
allative sille niille
adessive sil niil
ablative silt niilt
translative siks niiks
essive senennä niinnä
Chernyavskij's declension of se
singular plural
nominative se neet
genitive senen niijjen
partitive sitä niitä
illative siihe niihe
inessive siin niiz
elative siint niist
allative sille niille
adessive sill niil
ablative silt niilt
translative siks niiks
essive sinä niin
*) the accusative corresponds with either the genitive (sg) or nominative (pl)

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Ingrian demonstratives
proximal neutral distal
singular tämä (tää) se too
plural nämät (näät) neet noo

References[edit]

  • V. I. Junus (1936) Iƶoran Keelen Grammatikka[2], Leningrad: Riikin Ucebno-pedagogiceskoi Izdateljstva, page 99
  • Ruben E. Nirvi (1971) Inkeroismurteiden Sanakirja, Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura, page 514
  • Vitalij Chernyavskij (2005) Ižoran keel (Ittseopastaja)[3], page 16
  • Olga I. Konkova; Nikita A. Dyachkov (2014) Inkeroin Keel: Пособие по Ижорскому Языку[4], →ISBN, pages 13-14

Interlingua[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se (third person)

  1. Reflexive: oneself, himself, herself, itself, themselves.
    Illa se videva in le speculo.She saw herself in the mirror.
  2. Reciprocal: each other, one another.
    Quando illes se cognosceva?When did they meet (each other)?
  3. Used for passive constructions with undetermined agent (translated by "one").
    De mi casa se vide le mar.From my house the sea is seen.
    (Literally, “...the sea sees itself.”)
  4. Hence, used for expressions of the type "to get/become ...-ed".
    espaventar — “to frighten”; espaventar se = "to get frightened" (lit., "to frighten oneself")

Usage notes[edit]

  • (reflexive, reciprocal, oneself, himself, herself, itself, themselves, each other, one another): Many verbs bear a reflexive pronoun by default. Se must be replaced by me, te, etc., according to the subject.
    infiltrar se — “to infiltrate”
    repentir se — “to repent”

Istriot[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin .

Conjunction[edit]

se

  1. if
    • 1877, Antonio Ive, Canti popolari istriani: raccolti a Rovigno, volume 5, Ermanno Loescher, page 99:
      Biela, se ti vedissi li galiere
      Beautiful one, if you saw the galleys

Italian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Late Latin se, from Latin ,[1] from Proto-Indo-European *swé (reflexive pronoun).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /se/**
  • Rhymes: -e
  • Hyphenation: se

Conjunction[edit]

se

  1. if
    Se non è vero, è ben trovato.
    If it is not true, it is a good story.
  2. whether
  3. if only
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin .

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /se/°
  • Rhymes: -e
  • Hyphenation: se

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. Alternative form of si
Usage notes[edit]

Used when followed by a third-person direct object clitic (lo, la, li, le, or ne).

See also[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Latin sīc.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /se/*
  • Rhymes: -e
  • Hyphenation: se

Adverb[edit]

se

  1. (archaic) Alternative form of così

Conjunction[edit]

se

  1. (archaic) Alternative form of così: if (only); even if
    se Dio ti lasci, lettor, prender frutto / di tua lezioneeven if God leaves you, reader, take fruit of your lesson (Dante)
Usage notes[edit]
  • Used to express a conditional with the implicit hope on the part of the speaker that something does or does not happen. Always followed by the subjunctive.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Angelo Prati, "Vocabolario Etimologico Italiano", Torino, 1951

Japanese[edit]

Romanization[edit]

se

  1. Rōmaji transcription of
  2. Rōmaji transcription of

Kalasha[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Sanskrit (sa), सा (), from Proto-Indo-European *só.

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. he/she/it (absent from speaker) (3rd-person personal pronoun)

Coordinate terms[edit]

See also[edit]


Karelian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *se, from Proto-Uralic *śe. Cognates include Finnish se and Estonian see.

Pronunciation[edit]

Determiner[edit]

se

  1. this, that

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. this, that
  2. it (inanimate)

Declension[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • P. M. Zaykov (1999) Грамматика Карельского языка (фонетика и морфология) [Grammar of the Karelian language (phonetics and morphology)], →ISBN, page 58

Kven[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Finnish se, from Proto-Finnic *se, from Proto-Uralic *śe.

Pronunciation[edit]

Determiner[edit]

se

  1. this, that

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. this, that
  2. he, she, it

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Eira Söderholm (2017) Kvensk grammatikk, Tromsø: Cappelen Damm Akademisk, →ISBN, page 278

Ladin[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin .

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. (indefinite) one, you, we, they, people. Note: often translated using the passive voice in English.
  2. (reflexive) oneself, himself, herself, itself, themselves; (reciprocal) each other, one another. Note: With some verbs, si is not translated in English.

Lashi[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

se

  1. to know
  2. to be able to

References[edit]

  • Hkaw Luk (2017) A grammatical sketch of Lacid[5], Chiang Mai: Payap University (master thesis)

Latin[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Indo-European *swé (reflexive pronoun).

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

(accusative and ablative, no nominative)

  1. (reflexive) the accusative of the third-person singular and plural reflexive pronoun: oneself, himself, herself, itself, themselves
    Vōcālis est littera quae per sē syllabam facere potest.A vowel is a letter that can form a syllable by itself.
    Quīntus quōmodo sē habet hodiē?How's Quintus doing today? (literally, “is holding himself”)
    In mare praecipitāvit.He drowned himself in the ocean.
  2. (reflexive) the ablative of the third-person singular and plural reflexive pronoun

Usage notes[edit]

  • sēsē is very common as the emphatic form of the accusative pronoun, especially in reference to a preceding ipse, or at the beginning or the end of a clause.

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]


Ligurian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Late Latin se(d), from Latin (“if”) + quid (“what”).

Pronunciation[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

se

  1. if

Livonian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *se, from Proto-Uralic *śe. Cognates include Finnish se and Estonian see.

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. that
  2. he

Declension[edit]


Lower Sorbian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *sę.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves, oneself
  2. each other, one another
  3. used to form passives

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • Starosta, Manfred (1999), “se”, in Dolnoserbsko-nimski słownik / Niedersorbisch-deutsches Wörterbuch (in German), Bautzen: Domowina-Verlag

Luxembourgish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. unstressed form of si

Declension[edit]

See Template:lb-decl-personal pronouns for declension.


Malay[edit]

Malay cardinal numbers
 <  0 1 2  > 
    Cardinal : se

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Shortened form of esa, from Proto-Malayic *əsa.

Pronunciation[edit]

Numeral[edit]

se (Jawi spelling س)

  1. one
  2. (Terengganu dialect) En

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Maltese[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Sometimes thought to have been inherited from Arabic سَ(sa), from سَوْفَ(sawfa). However, it is more likely that the similarity is entirely coincidental and that Maltese se(r) is merely a shortened form of sejjer.

Pronunciation[edit]

Particle[edit]

se

  1. Indicates a future tense.

Mandarin[edit]

Romanization[edit]

se

  1. Nonstandard spelling of .

Usage notes[edit]

  • English transcriptions of Mandarin speech often fail to distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without the appropriate indication of tone.

Middle Dutch[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. accusative of si (they)

Middle English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old English swē, swǣ, variants of swā (“so”). More at so.

Adverb[edit]

se

  1. so

Etymology 2[edit]

Noun[edit]

se

  1. Alternative form of see (sea)

Etymology 3[edit]

Noun[edit]

se

  1. Alternative form of see (see)

Etymology 4[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. Alternative form of sche

Middle French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old French se, from Latin .

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. The third-person reflexive and reciprocal direct object pronoun.
    1. himself
    2. herself
    3. oneself
    4. itself
    5. themselves
    6. each other
  2. The third-person reflexive and reciprocal indirect object pronoun.
    1. to himself
    2. to herself
    3. to oneself
    4. to itself
    5. to themselves
    6. to each other
      ils se donnerent bataillethey gave each other battle (they gave battle to each other)

Usage notes[edit]

  • Whether to translate as himself, herself, oneself, itself, themselves or each other depends on the gender (male, female or none) and number (singular or plural).
  • Usually becomes s' before a vowel. In older manuscripts, it becomes s- with no apostrophe.

Descendants[edit]

  • French: se

Middle Low German[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Variously from Old Saxon sia and Old Saxon siu, ultimately developed from forms of Proto-Germanic *hiz and possibly influenced by Proto-Germanic *sa.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

  1. (third person singular female nominative) she
  2. her (accusative of )
  3. (third person plural nominative) they
  4. them (accusative of )

Declension[edit]

See Template:gml-perpron for declension.

Descendants[edit]


Neapolitan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin .

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. reflexive third person pronoun: oneself, himself, itself, herself, themselves etc.

Nheengatu[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Tupi xe. Cognate with Guaraní che.

Pronunciation[edit]

Headset icon.svg This entry needs audio files. If you are a native speaker with a microphone, please record some and upload them. (For audio required quickly, visit WT:APR.)
  • Hyphenation: se
  • Rhymes: -e

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. (second-class) first-person singular personal pronoun (I, me, my)
    Se akanhemu aikú nhaãsé se kirá aikú.
    I am scared because I am fat.
    Aé uputari upitá se irũmu.
    He wants to stay with me.
    Se manha uwiké uka pisasú upé.
    My mother enters the new house.

Usage notes[edit]

  • As a second-class pronoun, se is used as the subject of a sentence when its verb is a second-class one (those verbs are sometimes referred to as adjectives). The personal pronoun se is also used when governed by any postposition with the exception of arama and supé. Finally, se is used as a possessive pronoun as well.

See also[edit]

Nheengatu personal pronouns
singular first-class pronoun second-class pronoun
first-person ixé se
second-person indé ne
third-person i
plural first-class pronoun second-class pronoun
first-person yandé yané
second-person penhẽ pe
third-person aintá (or ) aintá (or )

References[edit]


North Frisian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Frisian siā, from Proto-Germanic *sehwaną

Pronunciation[edit]

IPA(key): /sɛ/

Verb[edit]

se (present se, 2nd singular sjochst, 3rd singular sjocht, past saag, perfect sen)

  1. (Sylt) to see

Northern Kurdish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Iranian *cwā́, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *ćwā́, from Proto-Indo-European *ḱwṓ.

Noun[edit]

Central Kurdish سەگ(seg)

se ?

  1. dog

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse sjá, from Proto-Germanic *sehwaną.

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

se (imperative se, present tense ser, passive ses or sees, simple past , past participle sett, present participle seende)

  1. to see (perceive with the eyes).

References[edit]


Old English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • þēlate nom. masc. sg. form

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-West Germanic *siz, replacing earlier *sā, from Proto-Germanic *sa.

Pronunciation[edit]

Article[edit]

  1. the
    mōnathe moon
    sēo sunnethe sun
    þæt seofonstierrethe Pleiades
    þā steorranthe stars

Determiner[edit]

  1. that
    Sele mē þone hamer.
    Give me that hammer.

Pronoun[edit]

  1. that
    Hē fōr hām, and æfter þām ne ġeseah iċ hine nǣfre mā.
    He went home, and after that I never saw him again.
  2. the one / that one
    Iċ eom þe cnocaþ.
    I am the one who knocks.
    Hēo nis sēo þe þū oferreċċan þearft.
    She's not the one you need to convince.
    Rǣtst þū nū þās bōc oþþe þā?
    Are you reading this book right now or that one?
    Hwæðer is þīn, þē þæt swearte hors þē þæt hwīte?
    Which one is yours, the black horse or the white one?
  3. (relative) that, who, what
    Ne biþ eall þæt glitnaþ nā gold.
    Not everything that glitters is gold.

Declension[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

  • The word "the" was used somewhat more sparingly in Old English than in the modern language. One reason is, English had only recently developed a word for "the" ( previously only meant "that"), leaving many nouns and phrases which had a definite meaning but which people continued to use without a definite article out of custom. Examples of words which usually went without the word "the" include:
    • Names of peoples, such as Engle (“the Angles”), Seaxan (“the Saxons”), and Crēcas (“the Greeks”). Ġelīefst þū þæt Dene magon bēon oferswīðde? (“Do you believe the Danes can be defeated?”).
    • All river names. On Temese flēat ān sċip (“A boat was floating on the Thames”).
    • A few nouns denoting types of locations, namely (“the sea”), wudu (“the woods”), and eorþe (“the ground”). Þū fēolle on eorðan and slōge þīn hēafod (“You fell on the ground and hit your head”). Note that eorþe was often used with a definite article when it meant "the Earth."
    • "the world," whether expressed with weorold or middanġeard. Iċ eom æt hām on ealre weorolde, þǣr þǣr sind wolcnu and fuglas and mennisċe tēaras (“I feel at home in the whole world, where there are clouds and birds and human tears”).
    • A couple abstract concepts, namely sōþ (“the truth”) and ǣ (“the law”). Iċ seċġe ēow sōþ, þæt iċ swerie (“I'm telling you the truth, I swear”).
    • Dryhten (“the Lord”).
    • morgen (“the morning”) and ǣfen (“the evening”). Iċ ārās on lætne morgen and ēode niðer (“I got up late in the morning and went downstairs”).
    • The four seasons, lengten (“spring”), sumor (“summer”), hærfest (“fall”), and winter (“winter”). On sumore hit biþ wearm and on wintra ċeald (“In the summer it's warm and in the winter it's cold”).
    • forþġewitennes (“the past”), andweardnes (“the present”), and tōweardnes (“the future”). Þā þe forðġewitennesse ġemunan ne magon, hīe bēoþ ġeniðrode hīe tō ġeedlǣċenne (“Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it”).
    • forma sīþ (“the first time”), ōþer sīþ (“the second time”), etc. Hwæt þōhtest þū þā þū mē forman sīðe ġemēttest? (“What did you think when you met me for the first time?”).
    • þīestra (“the dark”). Iċ āwēox, ac iċ nǣfre ne ġeswāc mē þīestra tō ondrǣdenne (“I grew up, but I never stopped being scared of the dark”).
    • Genitive phrases could include the word "the" before the head noun, but most often did not. Instead, genitive phrases were commonly formed like possessive phrases in modern English, with the genitive noun preceding the head noun ("John's car," not "the car of John"). Thus “the fall of Rome” was Rōme hryre, literally “Rome's fall,” and “the god of fire” was fȳres god, literally “fire's god.”

Quotations[edit]

For quotations using this term, see Citations:se.

Descendants[edit]


Old French[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin .

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se m or f (invariable)

  1. himself (reflexive direct and indirect third-person singular pronoun)
  2. herself (reflexive direct and indirect third-person singular pronoun)
  3. itself (reflexive direct and indirect third-person singular pronoun)
  4. oneself (reflexive direct and indirect third-person singular pronoun)
  5. themselves (reflexive direct and indirect third-person plural pronoun)
Descendants[edit]
  • French: se

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin si.

Conjunction[edit]

se

  1. if
  2. then (afterwards; following)
Descendants[edit]
  • French: si

Old Frisian[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. she
  2. they

Old Irish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Determiner[edit]

se

  1. Alternative form of so used after palatalized consonants and front vowels

Old Saxon[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *sa.

Pronunciation[edit]

Article[edit]

 m (demonstrative)

  1. definite article: the
    mānothe moon
  2. demonstrative adjective: that, those
    Hē gaf thē gift.He gave that gift.

Declension[edit]


Ometepec Nahuatl[edit]

Adjective[edit]

se

  1. one.

Pennsylvania German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Compare German sie.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. she
  2. her

Declension[edit]


Phalura[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Determiner[edit]

se (demonstrative, Perso-Arabic spelling سےۡ)

  1. the
  2. that (agr: rem fem / rem non-nom masc)

References[edit]

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[6], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN

Etymology 2[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Determiner[edit]

se (demonstrative, Perso-Arabic spelling سےۡ)

  1. the
  2. those (agr: rem)

References[edit]

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[7], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN

Etymology 3[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se (demonstrative, Perso-Arabic spelling سےۡ)

  1. it
  2. she (rem fem nom)

References[edit]

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[8], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN

Etymology 4[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se (demonstrative, Perso-Arabic spelling سےۡ)

  1. they (rem nom)

References[edit]

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[9], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN

Pilagá[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. I
    se-takeI want

References[edit]

  • 2001, Alejandra Vidal, quoted in Subordination in Native South-American Languages

Pipil[edit]

Pipil cardinal numbers
 <  0 1 2  > 
    Cardinal :
    Ordinal : achtu
    Adverbial : seujti
    Distributive : sejsē ika

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Uto-Aztecan *sɨmayV. Compare Classical Nahuatl ce (one). Cognate with Hopi suukya' (one), Shoshone seme' (one), Cahuilla súplli (one), and O'odham hema (one).

Pronunciation[edit]

Numeral[edit]

  1. one
    Nikneki semaya se
    I want only one

Article[edit]

  1. a, indefinite article
    Tikitat se tekulut tik ne kwajkwawit
    We saw an owl in the trees

Pronoun[edit]

  1. someone, something, indefinite pronoun
    Walajsik se ina ka metzishmati
    Someone came who said she/he knows you
    Se anmejemet nemi pal yawi pal kikua ne takwal
    One of you has to go to buy the food
    Ne nunan nechmakak se anmupal
    My mom gave me something for you all

Polish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. (colloquial, sometimes proscribed), (stressed) oneself, myself, yourself, itself, etc.
    Synonym: sobie
    Daj se z tym spokój.
    Give it a break.

Further reading[edit]

  • se in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • se in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Portuguese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Portuguese sse, se, from Latin .

Pronoun[edit]

se m or f

  1. third-person singular and plural reflexive pronoun; himself; herself; itself; themself; themselves
    Ela se viu no espelho.
    She saw herself in the mirror.
  2. third-person singular and plural reciprocal pronoun; each other; one another
    Quando eles se conheceram?
    When did they meet (each other)?
  3. second-person singular and plural reflexive and reciprocal pronoun, when used with second-person pronouns other than tu and vós; yourself; yourselves
    E você se diz um professor!
    And you call yourself a teacher!
  4. forms the passive voice; be; get
    espantarto frighten
    espantar-seto get frightened (Literally, “to frighten oneself”)
    Da minha casa se vê o mar.
    The sea can be seen from my house. (Literally, "From my house oneself sees the sea.")
  5. impersonal reflexive pronoun; oneself
    Vive-se bem em Belém.
    One lives well in Belém. (Literally, *"∅ lives oneself well in Belém.")
Usage notes[edit]
  • When the verb precedes se, a hyphen must be used. In Portugal post-verb se is more common, while in Brazil it usually precedes the verb.
  • (reflexive and reciprocal): Many verb senses take a reflexive pronoun by default; they are called pronominal verbs. Se must be replaced by me, te, etc. according to the subject.
    comunicar-se (com)to communicate (with)
    arrepender-seto repent
  • Many ergative English verbs are translated by a bare verb for transitive usage and a pronominal one for intransitive:
    O professor acalmou os alunos.
    The teacher calmed the students down.
    O professor acalmou-se.
    The teacher calmed down.
Quotations[edit]

For quotations using this term, see Citations:se.

See also[edit]

See Template:Portuguese personal pronouns for further pronouns.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Portuguese se, from Latin (“if”).

Alternative forms[edit]

  • si (Brazil eye dialect)

Conjunction[edit]

se

  1. if (introduces a condition)
    • 2009, Maria Gadú, Altar particular
      Se enfim, você um dia resolver mudar, tirar meu pobre coração do altar, me devolver como se deve ser.
      (please add an English translation of this quote)
    • 2007, J. K. Rowling, Lya Wyler, Harry Potter e as Relíquias da Morte, Rocco, page 317:
      Desculpe, acho que dá mais medo se for meia-noite!
      I'm sorry, I thought it would be more fearsome if it were midnight!}}
    Se for sair, leve um guarda-chuva.
    If you go out, take an umbrella.
    Só começaremos se nos pagarem.
    We will only begin if they pay us.
    Synonym: caso
    Antonyms: caso contrário, senão
Quotations[edit]

For quotations using this term, see Citations:se.


Etymology 3[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. (Brazil, Internet slang) Misspelling of ; "you"
    se sabe oq aconteceu??
    do u know what happened?

Romanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin .

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. (reflexive pronoun) oneself, himself, herself, itself, themselves

Related terms[edit]


Romansch[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (Rumantsch Grischun, Sursilvan) si
  • (Sutsilvan, Surmiran) sen
  • (Puter, Vallader)

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Adverb[edit]

se

  1. (Sutsilvan, Surmiran) up, upward, upwards

Rwanda-Rundi[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *cé.

Noun[edit]

 1a (plural bāsé 2a)

  1. his/her father
  2. his/her paternal uncle

Samoan[edit]

Article[edit]

se

  1. a (singular indefinite article)

See also[edit]


Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *sę.

Pronoun[edit]

se (Cyrillic spelling се)

  1. oneself (clitic form of reflexive pronoun)
    1. myself
    2. yourself
    3. himself, herself, itself
    4. ourselves
    5. yourselves
    6. themselves
  2. (by extension, impersonal) Used to convey the meaning of the English passive voice in the third person where the impersonal subject does the verb unto itself
    Kako se zoveš?What's your name? (literally, “What do you call yourself?”)
    Kako se to kaže na španjolskom?How is that said in Spanish? / How do you say that in Spanish? (literally, “How does it say itself in Spanish?”)
    Ovdje se govori španjolskiSpanish is spoken here (literally, “Spanish speaks itself here.”)
    Svjetska prvenstva se igraju ljeti.World Cups are played during the summer. (literally, “World Cups play themselves during the summer.”)
Declension[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *sь.

Particle[edit]

se (Cyrillic spelling се)

  1. (obsolete) this is; here is
    • 1404, anonymous, Kočerin tablet:
      се лежи вигань милошевиꙉь
      Here lies Viganj Milošević

Slovene[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *sę.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. oneself: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself (accusative)
  2. ourselves, yourselves, themselves (accusative)

Inflection[edit]

See Template:sl-decl-ppron for inflection.


Spanish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin .

Pronoun[edit]

se m or f (third person, including ‘usted’ and ‘ustedes)

  1. Third person (also used for usted and ustedes) reflexive direct or indirect object oneself, himself, herself, itself, yourself; each other; one another
  2. Used to convey the meaning of the English passive voice in the third person and with usted and ustedes
    ¿Cómo se llama?What is your name? (literally, “How do you call yourself?”)
    Se dice que...It is said that... (literally, “It says itself that...”)
    Aquí se habla españolSpanish is spoken here / They speak Spanish here. (literally, “One speaks Spanish here.”)
Usage notes[edit]
  • (third person reflexive, also used for ‘usted’ and ‘ustedes’): Se is used as a suffix with verbs in the infinitive and imperative.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Spanish ge (from Latin illī, compare Portuguese lhe, Italian gli), whose pronunciation shifted from /ʒe/ to /ʃe/ in Early Modern Spanish, at which point it was reanalyzed as /se/ (rather than shifting to /xe/ as expected).

Alternative forms[edit]

  • ge (archaic)

Pronoun[edit]

se m or f (third person, including ‘usted’ and ‘ustedes)

  1. Used instead of indirect object pronouns le and les before the direct object pronouns lo, la, los, or las.
    El samaritano se las dio.The Samaritan gave them to him.

See also[edit]

See Appendix:Spanish pronouns for an overview of Spanish pronouns and Template:es-personal pronouns for a pronoun table.

Etymology 3[edit]

Verb[edit]

se (main verb saber)

  1. Misspelling of .

Further reading[edit]


Sranan Tongo[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Dutch zee.

Noun[edit]

se

  1. sea

Swedish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Swedish sēa, , sīa, from Old Norse séa, sjá, from Proto-Germanic *sehwaną. Final -g of the past tense form added under influence of the Old Swedish plural form sāgho.

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

se (present ser, preterite såg, supine sett, imperative se)

  1. to see; use one's sight
    Synonyms: titta, kolla, stirra
    • 1888, August Strindberg, Fröken Julie
      Tvärtom, fröken Julie, som ni ser har jag skyndat uppsöka min övergivna!
      Quite the opposite, miss Julie, as you can see I have rushed to find my abandoned one!
    • 1915, John Wahlborg, Stjärnbanér i blågult
      Vad jag sett och hört och känt har helt enkelt överväldigat mig.
      What I have seen and heard and felt has quite simply overwhelmed me.
  2. to see; to understand
    Synonyms: förstå, fatta, begripa
    Jag ser inte hur det skulle kunna vara möjligt.I don't see how that could be possible.
  3. to see, to visualize; to form a mental picture of

Conjugation[edit]

Hypernyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Tarantino[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se (impersonal, reflexive)

  1. it
  2. one

Ternate[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

se (Jawi سي‎)

  1. human oblique preposition
    1. to
    2. at, in
    3. on
    4. from
Usage notes[edit]

Se is only used when the referent is human. For non-human referents, toma is used instead.

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

se (Jawi سي‎)

  1. associative preposition: with
    ngori totagi butu se ngori rinongoruI go to the market with my younger sibling
  2. instrumental preposition: with, by, using
    tabu se usiperafire the gun (literally, “to shoot with the gun”)
Usage notes[edit]

Generally, when se takes a human referent, it is associative, and when se takes a non-human referent, it is instrumental, although exceptions do exist.

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

se (Jawi سي‎)

  1. and
    tohida riyaya se ribabaI see my mother and my father
  2. forms compound numbers
    bobato nyagimoi se tofkangethe (council of) eighteen bobatos (literally, “the ten and eight bobatos”)

References[edit]

  • Frederik Sigismund Alexander de Clercq (1890) Bijdragen tot de kennis der Residentie Ternate, E.J. Brill
  • Rika Hayami-Allen (2001) A descriptive study of the language of Ternate, the northern Moluccas, Indonesia, University of Pittsburgh

Tocharian A[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Indo-European *suHyús. Cognate with Tocharian B soy, Old Armenian ուստր (ustr) and Ancient Greek υἱύς (huiús).

Noun[edit]

se m

  1. son

See also[edit]


Turkish[edit]

Noun[edit]

se

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter S.

Tuvaluan[edit]

Article[edit]

se (indefinite article)

  1. a, an

Veps[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *se, from Proto-Uralic *śe. Cognates include Finnish se and Estonian see.

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. it

Inflection[edit]

See Template:vep-decl-se for inflection.

Determiner[edit]

se

  1. that (far)

Inflection[edit]

See Template:vep-decl-se for inflection.

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • Zajceva, N. G.; Mullonen, M. I. (2007), “та, то, тот”, in Uz’ venä-vepsläine vajehnik / Novyj russko-vepsskij slovarʹ [New Russian–Veps Dictionary], Petrozavodsk: Periodika

Volapük[edit]

Preposition[edit]

se

  1. out of

Welsh[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

se (not mutable)

  1. (colloquial) Contraction of basai.

West Frisian[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. Alternative form of sy (she)

Pronoun[edit]

se

  1. Alternative form of sy (they)

Wutunhua[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Wutunhua numbers (edit)
40
 ←  3 4 5  → 
    Cardinal: se
    Ordinal: di-se, xxewa

Etymology 1[edit]

From Mandarin .

Numeral[edit]

se

  1. four

Etymology 2[edit]

From Mandarin .

Verb[edit]

se

  1. to die
    rolang sho-de je da nga-n-de mula ren se-gu-la diando rolang qhe-lai-li sho-de gu-li.
    As for this thing called ro-langs [type of Tibetan zombie], it is said that if a person among us dies, there will appear a ro-langs instead.
    (Quoted in Janhunen et al., p. 114)

References[edit]

  • Juha Janhunen, Marja Peltomaa, Erika Sandman, Xiawu Dongzhou (2008) Wutun (LINCOM's Descriptive Grammar Series), volume 466, LINCOM Europa, →ISBN
  • Erika Sandman (2016) A Grammar of Wutun[10], University of Helsinki (PhD), →ISBN

Yoruba[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (Ìkálẹ̀)

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

  1. (transitive) to cook
    Ó se ọbẹ̀ ilá.He cooked okra soup.
  2. (transitive) to boil
    Mi ò mọ ẹyin ín .I don't know how to boil eggs.
Usage notes[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

  1. (transitive) to block; to shut
    Wọ́n fèrèsé náà.They blocked that window.
  2. (transitive) to miss
    Òkúta tí ó jù ihò.The rock she threw missed the hole.
Derived terms[edit]

Zazaki[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

se

  1. how
  2. if
  3. what

Numeral[edit]

se

  1. hundred
  2. Alternative form of sed