jo

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Contents

English[edit]

Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Etymology[edit]

From Scots jo (joy).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

jo (plural jos)

  1. (Scotland) Darling, sweetheart.
    • 1711, traditional, published by James Watson, Old Long Syne:
      On Old long syne my Jo,
      on Old long syne,
      That thou canst never once reflect,
      on Old long syne.

Anagrams[edit]


Albanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Albanian *nio (not, no), from Proto-Indo-European *nĕ, *nē (negative particle). Compare Latin ne, Welsh neu, Old English na, Lithuanian ne (not).

Pronunciation[edit]

Determiner[edit]

jo

  1. no, not
Related terms[edit]

Basque[edit]

Verb[edit]

jo

  1. to hit, strike, punch
  2. (music) to play
    Gitarra jo nahi dut. - I want to play the guitar.
  3. to knock, rap
    Gizon itsusi batek etxeko atea jo du. - An ugly man knocked on the door.
  4. to crash
  5. to head, go
  6. (wind) to blow

Conjugation[edit]

Synonyms[edit]


Bavarian[edit]

Adverb[edit]

jo

  1. yes

Catalan[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Provençal eu, from Vulgar Latin *eo, attested from the 6th century in Romance, from Latin ego, from Proto-Italic *egō, from Proto-Indo-European *éǵh₂; akin to Greek εγώ (egó), Sanskrit अहम् (aham), all from Proto-Indo-European *éǵh₂.

Pronoun[edit]

jo (strong)

  1. I
  2. (after certain prepositions) me

Synonyms[edit]

  • mi (after most prepositions)

Declension[edit]


Czech[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Particle[edit]

jo

  1. (colloquial) yeah, yep

Synonyms[edit]

Antonyms[edit]


Dalmatian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin ubi. Compare Romanian iuo, Italian ove, French , Old Spanish o.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

jo

  1. where

Danish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Borrowed from Middle Low German jo. Used like Swedish ju, German ja.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [jo] (unstressed in context)

Adverb[edit]

jo

  1. as you know or should know; sometimes vaguely translatable as after all or obviously
    • 2015, Henriette E. Møller, Jelne, Gyldendal A/S ISBN 9788702102864
      Jeg ved ikke, hvad de talte om, hendes sind blev så mørkt, jeg kunne jo ikke rigtigt snakke med hende.
      I do not know of what they spoke, her mind became so dark, I could not really talk with her, as you should be able to see.
    • 2009, Sven Arvid Birkeland, I krigens kølvand: danske skæbner efter 2. verdenskrig, Gyldendal A/S ISBN 9788702078770, page 479
      Han gik jo ikke i krig i håb om, at det skulle blive den store sejr
      After all, he did not go to war in the hopes of achieving great victory.
    • 2016, Anita Krumbach, Dorte Lilmose, Hanne Kvist, Helle Perrier, Iben Mondrup, Louis Jensen, Ronnie Andersen, Sissel Bergfjord, Svend Åge Madsen, Tomas Lagermand Lundme, Det du ikke ved: Noveller for unge, Gyldendal A/S ISBN 9788702173956
      Jeg mener, at selv ens eget navn eller alder KAN man jo ikke være 100 procent sikker på er Dennis/17, vel?
      I mean, one obviously cannot even be 100% sure that one's own name or age are Dennis and 17, can one?

Conjunction[edit]

jo

  1. the
    Jo mere jeg løber, desto trættere bliver jeg.
    The more I run, the more tired I become.
Usage notes[edit]

jo ... desto ..., jo ... des ... are common constructions.

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Interjection[edit]

jo

  1. used to negate a question phrased negatively; contrast with ja

Usage notes[edit]

Questions like Kommer du ikke?, Du kommer ikke, vel?, Du kommer ikke? ("Are you not coming?", "You are not coming, are you?", "You are not coming?") might be answered with jo to indicate that the speaker is, in fact, coming.

References[edit]


Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From English yo.

Interjection[edit]

jo

  1. hi
    Ey! - Jo! - Hey! - Hi!
  2. bye
    Later! - Jo! - Later! - Bye!
  3. you too
    Fijn weekend! - Jo! - Have a nice weekend! - You too!

Esperanto[edit]

Noun[edit]

jo (accusative singular jo-on, plural jo-oj, accusative plural jo-ojn)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter J/j.

See also[edit]


Finnish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with Estonian ju. According to EES ultimately borrowed from Proto-Germanic *ju, compare Gothic 𐌾𐌿 (ju, already), Old High German ju (already).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈjo/
  • Rhymes: -o
  • Hyphenation: jo

Adverb[edit]

jo

  1. already
    Luin kirjan jo loppuun.
    I already finished the book.
  2. now (emphasizing word)
    (impatiently) Tule jo!
    Come now!

See also[edit]


Friulian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Vulgar Latin *eo, attested from the 6th century in Romance, from Latin ego.; akin to Greek εγώ (egó), Sanskrit अहम् (aham), all from Proto-Indo-European *éǵh₂.

Pronoun[edit]

jo

  1. I

See also[edit]


German[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Alteration of ja (yes) or the respective dialectal cognates.

Pronunciation[edit]

Interjection[edit]

jo

  1. (colloquial) yes, yeah, well; expresses agreement in a hesitant or ponderous manner.

Etymology 2[edit]

From the respective dialectal words for yes in about half of Northern and Central Germany and all of Western Germany. Possibly from Proto-Germanic *ja (yes, thus, so), possibly from an unrecorded root. The form with /oː/ must have existed in the middle ages already, since the word often partakes in the same sound shifts as words with /oː/ from other sources, cf. Swedish jo.

Pronunciation[edit]

Interjection[edit]

jo

  1. (colloquial) yes; expresses firm agreement.

Italian[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

jo

  1. Obsolete form of io.

Japanese[edit]

Romanization[edit]

jo

  1. Rōmaji transcription of じょ
  2. Rōmaji transcription of ジョ
  3. Rōmaji transcription of ぢょ
  4. Rōmaji transcription of ヂョ

Kashubian[edit]

Interjection[edit]

jo

  1. yes

Konabéré[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

jo

  1. water

Alternative forms[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Latvian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Headset icon.svg This entry needs audio files. If you have a microphone, please record some and upload them. (For audio required quickly, visit WT:APR.)

Conjunction[edit]

jo

  1. because
  2. for

Particle[edit]

jo

  1. the... the...
    jo vairāk naudas, jo labākthe more money the better

Lithuanian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Determiner[edit]

jo

  1. his (3rd person singular masculine possessive)

Pronoun[edit]

jo m

  1. (third-person singular) genitive form of jis.

Particle[edit]

jo

  1. (colloquial) yes

Livonian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Perhaps borrowed from Latvian jo (because, yet (more)), /juo/.

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

jo

  1. more; used with adjectives to form comparatives

Etymology 2[edit]

Perhaps borrowed from Latvian jau (yet, already, after all). However, compare also Finnish jo (already), thus ultimately a common Finnic borrowing from Proto-Germanic [Term?] that has likely been contaminated by the more figurative senses of Latvian jau, with the latter ultimately a distant cognate of the initial Germanic borrowing.

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

jo

  1. yet, already, after all
    • Tiit-Rein Viitso, Valts Ernštreits (2012–2013), Līvõkīel-ēstikīel-lețkīel sõnārōntõz, Tartu, Rīga: TÜ, LVA
      mōnigļikizt, ne jo lǟbõd mōzõ
      bumblebees, they are already migrating to their burrows (lit. "going inside of earth")
      amād jo ītist äb peļļõt
      not everyone makes the same [amount of money] (lit. "everyone after all doesn't earn the same")

Usage notes[edit]

  • LĒL only lists jo without listing any instances of juo. Livonian-Latvian-Livonian dictionary, in turn, only lists juo for the comparative forming preposition sense.
  • LĒL doesn't explicitly list the second sense that seems to exactly mirror Latvian jau (including the more figurative applications.) Such a function, however, is inferred from the many usage examples available in the dictionary. As a translation of Latvian jau (strictly in its temporal sense) LĒL lists jõbā (already), cf. Estonian juba.

Lojban[edit]

Cmavo[edit]

jo (rafsi jov)

  1. (conjunction) if and only if. Joins two predicate words in a complex predicate.

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]


Lower Sorbian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Particle[edit]

jo

  1. yes (word used to show agreement or acceptance)

Verb[edit]

jo

  1. third-person singular present of byś

Pronoun[edit]

jo

  1. accusative of wóno

Alternative forms[edit]

  • njo (after preposition)

Luxembourgish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

jo

  1. yes

See also[edit]

Verb[edit]

jo

  1. second-person singular imperative of joen

Northern Sami[edit]

Etymology[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Adverb[edit]

jo

  1. already
  2. now

Norwegian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

jo

  1. yes; in disagreement with the last speaker's negative statement.
    Du har ikke pusset tennene vel? - Jo, det har jeg.
    You haven't brushed your teeth, have you? - Yes, I have.
  2. yes or no; expressing doubt. (colloquial)
    Vil du være med? - Jo...
    Do you want to join? - I'm not sure...

Usage notes[edit]

Ja can be interpreted as an agreement with the person replied to. Jo is used instead of ja if this agreement could cause ambiguity. In example 1, agreement with the person asking the question would be the opposite of a confirmation that one actually did brush the teeth. As such ja would be ambiguous. The answer jo removes the possibility of agreement with the speaker.

Related terms[edit]


Occitan[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Provençal eu, from Vulgar Latin *eo, attested from the 6th century in Romance, from Latin ego. Compare Catalan jo, Old French jeo.

Pronoun[edit]

jo

  1. (Gascony) I

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Provençal (compare Catalan jou), from Latin jugum, iugum (compare French joug, Italian giogo), from Proto-Italic *jugom, from Proto-Indo-European *yugóm.

Noun[edit]

jo m

  1. yoke

Old French[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Vulgar Latin *eo, attested from the 6th century in Romance, from Latin ego.

Pronoun[edit]

jo

  1. I

Old Frisian[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

  1. Alternative form of , accusative and dative form of

Declension[edit]


Plautdietsch[edit]

Adverb[edit]

jo

  1. yes

Spanish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Interjection[edit]

¡Jo!

  1. stop, woah (especially when commanding a horse or imitative thereof)

Etymology 2[edit]

Euphemistic clipping of joder.

Interjection[edit]

¡Jo!

  1. Used to express surprise, amazement, or confusion.
    ¡Jo!
    I never heard anything like that before.
    ¡Jo!
    Are you serious?
    ¡Jo!
    Boy!

Further reading[edit]


Swedish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Interjection[edit]

jo

  1. yes; used as a disagreement to a negative statement or a negatively phrased question.
    Du har inte borstat tänderna, eller hur? - Jo, det har jag.
    "You haven't brushed your teeth, have you? - Yes, I have."

Usage notes[edit]

Ja (yes) can be interpreted as an agreement with the person replied to. Jo is used instead of ja if this agreement could cause ambiguity. In the example above agreement with the person asking the question would be the opposite of a confirmation that one actually did brush the teeth. As such ja would be ambiguous. The answer jo removes the possibility of agreement with the speaker.

In northern Sweden it is however not uncommon for the word jo to be used in place of ja in all cases, at least in spoken language.

Anagrams[edit]


Veps[edit]

Etymology[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Related to Finnish jo.

Adverb[edit]

jo

  1. already

References[edit]

  • Zajceva, N. G.; Mullonen, M. I. (2007), “уж, уже”, in Uz’ venä-vepsläine vajehnik / Novyj russko-vepsskij slovarʹ [New Russian–Veps Dictionary], Petrozavodsk: Periodika

West Frisian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Frisian , from Proto-Germanic *izwiz, dative/accusative of *jūz, from Proto-Indo-European *yū́. Compare English you, Dutch jou, u, Low German jo, ju, German euch.

Pronoun[edit]

jo

  1. you (polite)
  2. your (polite)

Usage notes[edit]

Though it is a singular pronoun, jo takes the plural conjugation of verbs.