jo

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English[edit]

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Scots jo (joy), from Middle English joye, from Old French joie, from Late Latin gaudia, neuter plural (mistaken as feminine singular) of Latin gaudium (joy), from gaudēre (to be glad, rejoice). Doublet of joy and gaudy (Oxford college reunion).

Noun[edit]

jo (plural jos)

  1. (Scotland) Darling, sweetheart.
    • 1711, traditional, published by James Watson, Old Long Syne:
      On Old long syne my Jo,
      on Old long syne,
      That thou canst never once reflect,
      on Old long syne.
    • My Jo Janet (traditional Scottish song)
      Keek into the draw-well, Janet, Janet;
      There ye'll see your bonnie sel',
      My jo, Janet.
Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Borrowed from Japanese .

Noun[edit]

jo (plural jo)

  1. The staff used in the Japanese martial art of jodo or jojutsu.

Anagrams[edit]

Albanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Likely a babble word, compare Turkish yok (no), and its derivates in other Balkanic languages such as Romanian ioc, Macedonian јок (jok). Comparison with German ja (yes)[1] is semantically hard to explain.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /jɔ/
  • (file)

Determiner[edit]

jo

  1. negates non-verbal phrases: no, not

Synonyms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Orel, Vladimir (1998), “jo”, in Albanian Etymological Dictionary, Leiden, Boston, Köln: Brill, →ISBN, page 159

Basque[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Unknown.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): (Southern) /xo/, [xo̞]
  • IPA(key): (Northern) /jo/, [jo̞]

Verb[edit]

jo ? (present participle jotzen, future participle joko, short form jo, verbal noun jotze)

  1. to hit, strike, punch
  2. (music) to play
    Gitarra jo nahi dut.I want to play the guitar.
  3. to knock, rap
    Gizon itsusi batek etxeko atea jo du.An ugly man knocked on the door.
  4. to crash
  5. to head, go
  6. to blow (the wind)
    Synonym: ibili

Further reading[edit]

  • "jo" in Euskaltzaindiaren Hiztegia [Dictionary of the Basque Academy], euskaltzaindia.eus
  • jo” in Orotariko Euskal Hiztegia [General Basque Dictionary], euskaltzaindia.eus

Bavarian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with Icelandic , Swedish jo. Equivalent to standard High German doch.

Pronunciation[edit]

Particle[edit]

jo

  1. yes (in response to a negative question).
    Woids es ned na fuat heid? Jo, owa's wedda is a weng schlecht.
    Wolltet ihr nicht noch heute furt? Doch, aber das Wetter is etwas schlecht.

Catalan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Old Catalan jo~io~yo, from Vulgar Latin (attested from the sixth century), from Latin ego, from Proto-Italic *egō, from Proto-Indo-European *éǵh₂; akin to Greek εγώ (egó), Sanskrit अहम् (aham), all from Proto-Indo-European *éǵh₂. Compare Occitan jo, Spanish yo, French je, Italian io.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

jo (strong)

  1. I
  2. (after certain prepositions) me

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

  • mi (after most prepositions)

Noun[edit]

jo m (uncountable)

  1. ego (the self)
    Synonym: ego

References[edit]

Czech[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Compare Polish jo.

Pronunciation[edit]

Particle[edit]

jo

  1. (colloquial) yeah, yep
    Synonym: ano
    Antonym: ne

Further reading[edit]

  • jo in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • jo in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989

Dalmatian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin ubi. Compare Romanian iuo, Italian ove, French , Old Spanish o.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

jo

  1. where

Danish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Borrowed from Middle Low German jo. Used like Swedish ju, German ja (adverb) / je (conjunction).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [jo] (unstressed in context)

Adverb[edit]

jo

  1. as you know or should know; sometimes vaguely translatable as after all or obviously
    • 2015, Henriette E. Møller, Jelne, Gyldendal A/S, →ISBN:
      Jeg ved ikke, hvad de talte om, hendes sind blev så mørkt, jeg kunne jo ikke rigtigt snakke med hende.
      I do not know of what they spoke, her mind became so dark, I could not really talk with her, as you should be able to see.
    • 2009, Sven Arvid Birkeland, I krigens kølvand: danske skæbner efter 2. verdenskrig, Gyldendal A/S, →ISBN, page 479:
      Han gik jo ikke i krig i håb om, at det skulle blive den store sejr
      After all, he did not go to war in the hopes of achieving great victory.
    • 2016, Anita Krumbach; Dorte Lilmose; Hanne Kvist; Helle Perrier; Iben Mondrup, Det du ikke ved: Noveller for unge, Gyldendal A/S, →ISBN:
      Jeg mener, at selv ens eget navn eller alder KAN man jo ikke være 100 procent sikker på er Dennis/17, vel?
      I mean, one obviously cannot even be 100% sure that one's own name or age are Dennis and 17, can one?

Conjunction[edit]

jo

  1. the
    Jo mere jeg løber, desto trættere bliver jeg.
    The more I run, the more tired I become.
Usage notes[edit]

jo ... desto ..., jo ... des ... are common constructions.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Norse jaur.

Pronunciation[edit]

Interjection[edit]

jo

  1. yes (used to contradict a negative statement or negatively phrased question) (often followed by I do, he is, etc. in English to indicate contradiction rather than affirmation); identical in usage to the French si. Contrasts with ja which confirms positive statements or positively phrased questions.
    Du elsker mig ikke, gør du vel? — Jo!
    You don't love me, do you? — Yes, I do!
    Jeg har ikke gjort noget! — Jo!
    I didn't do anything! — Yes, you did!
Usage notes[edit]

Negatively phrased questions like Kommer du ikke?, Du kommer ikke, vel?, Du kommer ikke? ("Are you not coming?", "You are not coming, are you?", "You are not coming?") must be answered with jo to indicate that the speaker is, in fact, coming; they cannot be answered with ja ("yes").

References[edit]

Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From English yo.

Interjection[edit]

jo

  1. hi
    Ey! - Jo! - Hey! - Hi!
  2. bye
    Later! - Jo! - Later! - Bye!
  3. you too
    Fijn weekend! - Jo! - Have a nice weekend! - You too!

Esperanto[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

jo (accusative singular jo-on, plural jo-oj, accusative plural jo-ojn)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter J.

See also[edit]

Finnish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *jo, borrowed from Proto-Germanic *ju, compare Gothic 𐌾𐌿 (ju, already), Old High German ju (already). Cognates include Estonian ju, Votic jo, Veps jo, Ingrian jo, Karelian jo. (EES).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈjo/, [ˈjo̞]
  • Rhymes: -o
  • Syllabification(key): jo

Adverb[edit]

jo

  1. already (prior to some time; so soon)
    Luin kirjan jo loppuun.
    I already finished the book.
  2. now, already (emphasizing word)
    (impatiently) Tule jo!
    Come now!

Derived terms[edit]

Friulian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Vulgar Latin eo (attested from the 6th century), from Latin ego.; akin to Greek εγώ (egó), Sanskrit अहम् (aham), all from Proto-Indo-European *éǵh₂.

Pronoun[edit]

jo

  1. I

See also[edit]

German[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Alteration of ja (yes) or the respective dialectal cognates. Compare English yo.

Pronunciation[edit]

Interjection[edit]

jo

  1. (colloquial, dialectal) yes, yeah, well; expresses agreement in a hesitant or ponderous manner.

Etymology 2[edit]

From the respective dialectal words for yes in about half of Northern and Central Germany and all of Western Germany (compare Low German ja, jo). Possibly from Proto-Germanic *ja (yes, thus, so), possibly from an unrecorded root. The form with /oː/ must have existed in the Middle Ages already, since the word often partakes in the same sound shifts as words with /oː/ from other sources, cf. Swedish jo, Middle English yo (> English yo).

Pronunciation[edit]

Interjection[edit]

jo

  1. (colloquial) yes; expresses firm agreement.
Derived terms[edit]

Ingrian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *jo. Cognates include Finnish jo and Estonian ju.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

jo

  1. already
    • 1936, N. A. Iljin and V. I. Junus, Bukvari iƶoroin șkouluja vart, Leningrad: Riikin Ucebno-pedagogiceskoi Izdateljstva, page 25:
      Kiko ja Miko jo uijuut.
      Kiko and Miko are already swimming.
  2. Emphasises the sentence.
    • 1936, N. A. Iljin and V. I. Junus, Bukvari iƶoroin șkouluja vart, Leningrad: Riikin Ucebno-pedagogiceskoi Izdateljstva, page 64:
      Jo nyt mahan lukkia.
      Now I can read.

References[edit]

  • Ruben E. Nirvi (1971) Inkeroismurteiden Sanakirja, Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura, page 105

Italian[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

jo

  1. (obsolete) Alternative form of io

Japanese[edit]

Romanization[edit]

jo

  1. Rōmaji transcription of じょ
  2. Rōmaji transcription of ジョ
  3. Rōmaji transcription of ぢょ
  4. Rōmaji transcription of ヂョ

Karelian[edit]

Adverb[edit]

jo

  1. already

Kashubian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from German jo.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈjɔ/
  • Hyphenation: jo

Interjection[edit]

jo

  1. yes
    Jo, mògã to zrobic.Yes, I can do it.
    Jo, jô jem tam béł.Yes, I have been there.

Further reading[edit]

  • jo”, in Internetowi Słowôrz Kaszëbsczégò Jãzëka [Internet Dictionary of the Kashubian Language], Fundacja Kaszuby, 2022
  • Eùgeniusz Gòłąbk (2011), “tak”, in Słownik Polsko-Kaszubski / Słowôrz Pòlskò-Kaszëbsczi

Konabéré[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

jo

  1. water

Alternative forms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Lashi[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

jo

  1. to be
  2. to exist

References[edit]

  • Hkaw Luk (2017) A grammatical sketch of Lacid[1], Chiang Mai: Payap University (master thesis)

Latvian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

This entry needs audio files. If you are a native speaker with a microphone, please record some and upload them. (For audio required quickly, visit WT:APR.)

Conjunction[edit]

jo

  1. because
  2. for

Particle[edit]

jo

  1. the... the...
    jo vairāk naudas, jo labākthe more money the better

Lithuanian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Determiner[edit]

jo

  1. his (3rd person singular masculine possessive)

Pronoun[edit]

jo m

  1. (third-person singular) genitive form of jis.

Particle[edit]

jo

  1. (colloquial) yes

Livonian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Perhaps borrowed from Latvian jo (because, yet (more)), /juo/.

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

jo

  1. more; used with adjectives to form comparatives

Etymology 2[edit]

Perhaps borrowed from Latvian jau (yet, already, after all). However, compare also Finnish jo (already), thus ultimately a common Finnic borrowing from Proto-Germanic *ju that has likely been contaminated by the more figurative senses of Latvian jau, with the latter ultimately a distant cognate of the initial Germanic borrowing.

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

jo

  1. yet, already, after all
    • Tiit-Rein Viitso, Valts Ernštreits (2012–2013), Līvõkīel-ēstikīel-lețkīel sõnārōntõz, Tartu, Rīga: TÜ, LVA
      mōnigļikizt, ne jo lǟbõd mōzõ
      bumblebees, they are already migrating to their burrows (lit. "going inside of earth")
      amād jo ītist äb peļļõt
      not everyone makes the same [amount of money] (lit. "everyone after all doesn't earn the same")

Usage notes[edit]

  • LĒL only lists jo without listing any instances of juo. Livonian-Latvian-Livonian dictionary, in turn, only lists juo for the comparative forming preposition sense.
  • LĒL doesn't explicitly list the second sense that seems to exactly mirror Latvian jau (including the more figurative applications.) Such a function, however, is inferred from the many usage examples available in the dictionary. As a translation of Latvian jau (strictly in its temporal sense) LĒL lists jõbā (already), cf. Estonian juba.

Lower Sorbian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Particle[edit]

jo

  1. yes (word used to show agreement or acceptance)

Verb[edit]

jo

  1. third-person singular present of byś

Pronoun[edit]

jo

  1. accusative of wóno

Alternative forms[edit]

  • njo (after preposition)

Further reading[edit]

  • Muka, Arnošt (1921, 1928), “jo”, in Słownik dolnoserbskeje rěcy a jeje narěcow (in German), St. Petersburg, Prague: ОРЯС РАН, ČAVU; Reprinted Bautzen: Domowina-Verlag, 2008
  • Starosta, Manfred (1999), “jo”, in Dolnoserbsko-nimski słownik / Niedersorbisch-deutsches Wörterbuch (in German), Bautzen: Domowina-Verlag

Luxembourgish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

jo

  1. yes

See also[edit]

Verb[edit]

jo

  1. second-person singular imperative of joen

Maquiritari[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Postposition[edit]

jo

  1. (with following directional suffix -nno) indicates a point of origin

Usage notes[edit]

This postposition also infrequently occurs without -nno, in which case it is not clear whether it inflects at all and its meaning is difficult to determine.

References[edit]

  • Cáceres, Natalia (2011) Grammaire Fonctionnelle-Typologique du Ye’kwana[2], Lyon, page 277–278

Murui Huitoto[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Cognates include Minica Huitoto jo and Nüpode Huitoto jo.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [ˈhɔ]
  • Hyphenation: jo

Root[edit]

jo

  1. house

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • Katarzyna Izabela Wojtylak (2017) A grammar of Murui (Bue): a Witotoan language of Northwest Amazonia.[3], Townsville: James Cook University press (PhD thesis), page 127

North Frisian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • djo (Helgoland)
  • ja (Sylt and Mooring)

Etymology[edit]

Compare West Frisian hja.

Pronoun[edit]

jo

  1. they

Northern Sami[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Adverb[edit]

jo

  1. already
  2. now

Further reading[edit]

  • Koponen, Eino; Ruppel, Klaas; Aapala, Kirsti, editors (2002–2008) Álgu database: Etymological database of the Saami languages[4], Helsinki: Research Institute for the Languages of Finland

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Norse jaur.

Adverb[edit]

jo

  1. yes; in disagreement with the last speaker's negative statement.
    Du har ikke pusset tennene vel? - Jo, det har jeg.
    You haven't brushed your teeth, have you? - Yes, I have.
  2. yes or no; expressing doubt. (colloquial)
    Vil du være med? - Jo...
    Do you want to join? - I'm not sure...
Usage notes[edit]

Ja can be interpreted as an agreement with the person replied to. Jo is used instead of ja if this agreement could cause ambiguity. In example 1, agreement with the person asking the question would be the opposite of a confirmation that one actually did brush the teeth. As such ja would be ambiguous. The answer jo removes the possibility of agreement with the speaker.

Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Norwegian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia no

From Old Norse gjóðr.

Noun[edit]

jo m (definite singular joen, indefinite plural joer, definite plural joene)

  1. a skua, seabird of family Stercorariidae.
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Norse jór, from Proto-Germanic *ehwaz.

Noun[edit]

jo m (definite singular joen, indefinite plural joar, definite plural joane)

  1. a horse (only used in given names)
Related terms[edit]

Male given names:

Female given names:

Etymology 2[edit]

Norwegian Nynorsk Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia nn

From Old Norse gjóðr.

Alternative forms[edit]

  • gjod (alternative spelling)

Noun[edit]

jo m (definite singular joen, indefinite plural joar, definite plural joane)

  1. a skua, seabird of family Stercorariidae.
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Norwegian Bokmål jo, from Danish jo.

Adverb[edit]

jo

  1. Alternative form of jau

Etymology 4[edit]

Compare Swedish ju.

Adverb[edit]

jo

  1. Used to indicate an expectation of common understanding, or that what is said is an obvious fact – “as you well know,” “of course.”
    Synonym: no
    Han kom jo aldri
    But he never came though
    Ikkje rart at du fekk ølskummet over heile golvet. Ein skal jo ikkje slå på ølboksen fyri ein opnar den!
    It’s not weird that you’ve got the beer foam all-over the floor. You shouldn’t punch the beer can before you open it, y’know!

References[edit]

Occitan[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Occitan eu, from Vulgar Latin eo (attested from the 6th century in Romance), from Latin ego. Compare Catalan jo, Old French jeo.

Pronoun[edit]

jo

  1. (Gascony) I

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Occitan (compare Catalan jou), from Latin jugum, iugum (compare French joug, Italian giogo), from Proto-Italic *jugom, from Proto-Indo-European *yugóm.

Noun[edit]

jo m

  1. yoke

Old French[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

jo

  1. Alternative form of je

Old Frisian[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

  1. Alternative form of , accusative/dative of

Inflection[edit]

Plautdietsch[edit]

Adverb[edit]

jo

  1. yes

Polish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /jɔ/
  • Rhymes:
  • Syllabification: jo

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *(j)azъ.

Pronoun[edit]

jo

  1. (dialectal) Alternative form of ja (I)

Etymology 2[edit]

Borrowed from German jo.

Particle[edit]

jo

  1. (colloquial or dialectal) yeah, yep
    Synonyms: tak, ano, no, hej
    Antonym: nie

Further reading[edit]

  • jo in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • jo in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Saterland Frisian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Frisian hiā. Cognates include West Frisian hja and North Frisian jo.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

jo (oblique hier)

  1. they

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Marron C. Fort (2015), “jo”, in Saterfriesisches Wörterbuch mit einer phonologischen und grammatischen Übersicht, Buske, →ISBN

Spanish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈxo/ [ˈxo]
  • Rhymes: -o
  • Syllabification: jo

Etymology 1[edit]

Interjection[edit]

¡jo!

  1. stop, woah (especially when commanding a horse or imitative thereof)
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Euphemistic clipping of joder (fuck).

Interjection[edit]

¡jo!

  1. (euphemistic) Used to express surprise, amazement, or confusion
    ¡Jo!I never heard anything like that before. / Are you serious? / Boy!

Further reading[edit]

Swahili[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Possibly from English yo.

Pronunciation[edit]

Interjection[edit]

jo

  1. (Sheng) added for emphasis to the end of a sentence
    Manze jo!Oh man!

Swedish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse jaur.

Pronunciation[edit]

Interjection[edit]

jo

  1. yes; used as a disagreement to a negative statement or a negatively phrased question.
    Du har inte borstat tänderna, eller hur? - Jo, det har jag.
    You haven't brushed your teeth, have you? - Yes, I have.

Usage notes[edit]

  • Sometimes used to mean yes more generally, in a similar vein to jodå. See the usage notes for that interjection.
  • Ja (yes) can be interpreted as an agreement with the person replied to. Jo is used instead of ja if this agreement could cause ambiguity. In the example above agreement with the person asking the question would be the opposite of a confirmation that one actually did brush the teeth. As such ja would be ambiguous. The answer jo removes the possibility of agreement with the speaker. In Swedish dialects spoken in northern Sweden and Finland, it is however not uncommon for the word jo to be used in place of ja in all cases, at least in spoken language.

Related terms[edit]

Anagrams[edit]

Veps[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *jo.

Adverb[edit]

jo

  1. already

References[edit]

  • Zajceva, N. G.; Mullonen, M. I. (2007), “уж, уже”, in Uz’ venä-vepsläine vajehnik / Novyj russko-vepsskij slovarʹ [New Russian–Veps Dictionary], Petrozavodsk: Periodika

Votic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *jo.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Luutsa, Liivtšülä) IPA(key): /ˈʝo/, [ˈʝo]
  • Rhymes: -o
  • Hyphenation: jo

Adverb[edit]

jo

  1. already
  2. (with negative) any more

Particle[edit]

jo

  1. An emphatic intensifying particle.

References[edit]

  • V. Hallap, E. Adler, S. Grünberg, M. Leppik (2012), “jo”, in Vadja keele sõnaraamat [A dictionary of the Votic language], 2nd edition, Tallinn

West Frisian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Frisian , from Proto-West Germanic *iwwiz, from Proto-Germanic *izwiz, dative/accusative of *jūz, from Proto-Indo-European *yū́.

Pronoun[edit]

jo

  1. you (second person singular nominative formal pronoun)
Usage notes[edit]

Though it is a singular pronoun, jo takes the plural conjugation of verbs.

Inflection[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • jo”, in Wurdboek fan de Fryske taal (in Dutch), 2011

Etymology 2[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Determiner[edit]

jo

  1. your (second-person singular formal possessive determiner)
Further reading[edit]
  • jo”, in Wurdboek fan de Fryske taal (in Dutch), 2011

Yoruba[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Proposed to be derived from Proto-Yoruboid *jó, compare with Igala

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

  1. (intransitive) to dance
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Possibly from Proto-Yoruboid *jó, cognate with Igala

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

  1. (ergative) to burn
  2. (transitive) to sting; to irritate

Etymology 3[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

  1. to drip
Derived terms[edit]