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This Proto-Germanic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.





  1. accusative/dative/instrumental of *jūz


  • West Germanic: *iwwiz (from dative/accusative of *jīz)
    • Old English: ēow
      • Middle English: yow
      • Old English: ēowic (with -c from the singular accusative pronouns)
    • Old Frisian: , iu, , io
      • North Frisian: juu
      • Saterland Frisian: jou, Jou
      • West Frisian: jo
    • Old Saxon: iu, eu, iuu, giu
    • Old Dutch: iu
      • Middle Dutch: u, ju
        • Dutch: u
    • Old Dutch: *jū (northern variant)
    • Old High German: iu
      • Middle High German: iu
        • Alemannic German: öi
      • Old High German: iuwih (with -h from the singular accusative pronouns)
  • Old Norse: yðr
  • Gothic: 𐌹𐌶𐍅𐌹𐍃 (izwis)